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Full text of "Technical report for the town of Shallotte transportation plan, North Carolina"




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North Carolina Department of Transportation 
Office of Planning & Environmental 
Statewide Planning Branch 



Technical Report 
for the 




SHALLOTTE, NORTH CAROLINA 



Town of Shallotte 
Transportation Plan 

I0USE 

jun 2 7 \ 



iATEUBRARYOFNOWCABO^ 
RALB6N 



2002 



Technical Report 

for the 

Town of Shallotte 

Transportation Plan 



Prepared by the 

Statewide Planning Branch 

North Carolina Department of Transportation 



In Cooperation with 
The Town of Shallotte 

The Federal Highway Administration 
U.S. Department of Transportation 



February 11,2002 



i SEAL M 

"5873 / 




WttF 



%?w$°°-> 



Daniel L.Tn^asvPt E. 
Unit Head, Statewide Planning Branch 



Persons Responsible for this Report: 

Project Engineer: 

Engineering Technician 

Urban Planning Engineer, Unit A: 

Group Manager of Statewide Planning Branch: 

Manager of Statewide Planning Branch: 



Kimberly Drew Hinton 

Reuben Crummy, 
Bob Stewart 

Daniel L. Thomas, P.E. 

Mike Bruff, P.E. 

A. Blake Norwood, P.E. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

Town of Shallotte 
Board of Aldermen 



Mayor Carson H. Durham III 

Mayor Pro-Temp Clyde R. Babson 

James E. Roach 

Sara McCullough 

John J. Twomey 

Buddy Kelly 

Town Administrator Thurston Chad Howell, Tim Owens 



y 



This report is dedicated to Rick Blackwood, my supervisor and most of all my friend. Thank you for all 
your encouragement. Thank you for your time, your patience, and your smile. I think about you a lot even 
today of the friend and supervisor of yesterday. You will forever be in my heart. 

Kimberly Hinton 






~\ 



Table of Contents 



TABLE OF CONTENTS I 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 

Highlights of the 1999 study update Plan 1 

CHAPTER 1 THOROUGHFARE PLAN RECOMMENDATIONS 5 

The Objective 5 

Thoroughfare Plan Recommendations 5 

Major Thoroughfare System. 5 

US 17 and US 17 Bypass 6 

US 17 Business (Main Street) 6 

NC 130 (Whiteville Road and Holden Beach Road) 6 

Route Designation Change 6 

Future Route Designation Change 7 

NC 130 Improvement 7 

TIP #U-3462 Recommendation 7 

Other Recommendations 7 

NC 179 (Village Road and Brick Landing Road) 7 

Future Route Designation Change 7 

SR 1134 (Gray Bridge Road) and Proposed Relocations 8 

SR 1136 (Red Bug Road) 8 

SR 1145 (Village Point Road) 8 

SR 1154 (Hale Swamp Road) 8 

SR 1163 (Georgetown Road Extension) 8 

SR 1173 (Sellers Road) 9 

SR 1184 (Ocean Isle Beach Road) 9 

Shallotte Parkway (Ocean Isle Beach Road Proposed Extension) 9 

SR 1320 (McMiley Road) And Extension 9 

Priorities 9 

Minor Thoroughfare System 9 

Purpose and Need Statements 15 

NC 179 Extension. 15 

Shallotte Parkway 16 

US 17 -NCI 30 Connector 17 

Gray Bridge Road Extension SRI 134. 17 

Public Involvement 18 

CHAPTER 2 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE THOROUGHFARE PLAN 19 

State-Municipal Adoption of the Thoroughfare Plan 19 

Subdivision Controls 19 

Land Use Controls 19 

Zoning Ordinances 19 

Official Maps 20 

Development Reviews 21 

Funding Sources 22 

Capital Improvements Program 22 

Transportation Improvement Program 22 

Industrial Access Funds 23 

Small Urban Funds 23 

The North Carolina Highway Trust Fund Law 23 



CHAPTER 3 EXISTING AND PROJECTED CONDITIONS 25 

Factors Affecting Transportation 25 

Population 25 

Economy 27 

Environmental Concerns 27 

Heritage 28 

Historic Sites 28 

Park Properties 28 

Endangered Species 29 

Occurrences 29 

Water Quality 29 

Wetlands 29 

Fish Nursery Areas 30 

High Quality Water 30 

National Wetlands Inventory 30 

Pollution Concerns 30 

Superrund 30 

Pollution Discharge 31 

Transportation 31 

Traffic 31 

Capacity, Width, and Alignment Deficiencies 31 

High Frequency Accident Profile 33 

High Frequency Accident Profile 34 

Bridge Replacement Program 34 

Functionally Obsolete 35 

Structurally Deficient 35 

CHAPTER 4 TRAVEL MODEL ANALYSIS . 51 

Present Travel 51 

Trip Generation 51 

Trip Productions 52 

Trip Attractions 53 

External and Through Trips 53 

Trip Distribution 54 

Future Travel 54 

CHAPTER 5 BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN ELEMENTS 63 

Goals 63 

Collect & Analyze Data 63 

Plan Development 63 



List of Tables 

Table 1 Population & Projections 26 

Table 2 Population to Vehicle Registration Comparison 26 

Table 3 Minimum Levels of Service for Roads and Highways 32 

Table 4 Minimum Tolerable Lane Widths 33 

Table 5 High Frequency Accident Profile 34 

Table 6 Functionally Obsolete Bridges 35 

Table 7 Structurally Deficient Bridges 36 

Table 8 Sidewalk Routes 64 

Table 9 Bicycle Routes 64 



u 



List of Figures 

Figure 1 Geographical Location 3 

Figure 2 2001 Shallotte Urban Area Thoroughfere Plan 13 

Figure 3 Heritage Map 37 

Figure 4 Water Quality Concerns 39 

Figure 5 Pollution Concerns 41 

Figure 6 1999 Capacity Deficiency Map 43 

Figure 7 2025 Capacity Deficiency Map 45 

Figure 8 Existing & Projected AADT Map 47 

Figure 9 Bridge Deficiency Map 49 

Figure 10 1994 Shallotte Urban Area Throughfare Plan Map 55 

Figure 1 1 Planning Area & Zone Map 57 

Figure 12 Traffic Count Station Map 59 

Figure 13 1999 Existing Street System 61 

Figure 14 Sidewalk Plan Map 65 

Figure 15 Bicycle Plan Map 67 



Appendices 

Appendix A Shallotte Street Inventory 

Appendix B Typical Cross Sections 

Appendix C Travel Model Data 

Appendix D Level of Service 

Appendix E Environmental Listings 

Appendix F Urban Thoroughfare Planning Principles 

Appendix G Subdivision Ordinances & Design Standards. 

ENDNOTES 



HI 



IV 



Executive Summary 



The Town of Shallotte located in southwestern Brunswick County was incorporated in 
1899 and named for the Shallotte River on which it is located as shown in Figure 1 
Geographical Location. The Town is centered at the intersection of US 17, NC 179 and 
NC 130, just minutes away from the North Carolina Coast. Being only 33 feet above sea 
level, the topography of the area is typical for a coastal community, very flat and sandy. 
Its economic base was once derived primarily of tourism and retirees. However this is 
not the case today. 

The Town of Shallotte has developed into Brunswick County's "Central Business 
District." It is no longer a sleepy small urban town. Large commercial development has 
moved into the neighborhood. These businesses are attracting consumers in and around 
the county from Bolivia to Holden Beach, Sunset Beach and Calabash. 

The last plan was completed in October 1996. The 1996 plan consists of a compilation of 
thoroughfares and does not address any other modes of transportation. This 1999 study 
update of the 1996 plan is based on transportation modeling software, Tranplan. 
Tranplan requires more technical data. This 1999 study update does contain a 
bicycle/pedestrian element as part of the transportation plan. The 1999 study update has a 
2025 future design year. 

Highlights of the 1999 study update Plan 

Endorsement of All Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) Projects: 

1) U-3462, Smith Avenue, Realign Intersection with NC 130, expanding terminus to US 
1 7 Bypass that would include widening the entire Smith Avenue corridor 

2) U-3463, NC 179 Extension. This extension would eliminate a bottleneck on Main 
Street where NC 130, NC 179, and US 17 Business come together. 

3) U-3473, Shallotte Parkway, SR 1184 Ocean Isle Beach Road Extension. This 
extension will form a northern loop facility to improve access to Ocean Isle Beach 
from the north, and it will promote residential and commercial growth in the area. 

4) Bailey Street Extension will provide better circulation around the CBD and promote 
new business growth along the US 17 Bypass corridor. 

5) CBD Arterial will provide better circulation in the northern CBD and along Main 
Street (US 17 Business). 

The North Carolina Department of Transportation and the Town of Shallotte are jointly 
responsible for the proposed thoroughfare improvements. Cooperation between the State 
and local governmental unit is of primary concern. If right-of-ways are not protected 
through local ordinances for new roadway improvements, construction may prove to be 
cost prohibitive. Prior to construction of specific projects, a more detailed study may 
need to be required to reconsider development trends and to determine specific locations 
and design requirements. 



The Town of Shallotte mutually adopted the plan on February 6, 2001 and the NCDOT 
Board of Transportation on March 16, 2001. The Brunswick County Commissioners 
mutually adopted the 2001 Brunswick County Thoroughfare plan on October 1, 2001 and 
the NCDOT Board of Transportation on November 8, 2001. The Brunswick County 
Thoroughfare plan incorporates the Shallotte Urban Area Thoroughfare plan. It is the 
responsibility of the local government body to implement the plan following the 
guidelines set forth in Chapter 2 Implementation of the Thoroughfare Plan. 



Geographical Location for the 
Shallotte Urban Area 



State of 
North Carolina 



Brunswick 
County 




Holder, -*. 

Beach '"-, 



Cherry Grove Beach 



-v^'-^^Ocean Drive Beach 
•descent Beach 



FIGURE 1 



■^■na^H 



Chapter 1 
Thoroughfare Plan Recommendations 



The Objective 

The primary objective of a thoroughfare plan is to eliminate existing and projected 
system deficiencies that cause traffic congestion. The recommended plan sets forth a 
system of thoroughfares to serve the anticipated traffic and land development needs for 
the Shallotte area. The planning methodology enables identification of deficiencies in the 
existing system, allowing compilation of a list of needed improvements. The 
recommended plan presents an analysis and makes recommendations based on the ability 
of the existing street system to serve present and future travel desires as the area 
continues to grow. 

Thoroughfare Plan Recommendations 

The process of developing, testing and evaluating alternate plans involved several 
considerations. These included identified deficiencies, environmental impacts, existing 
and anticipated land development, and travel services. Aerial photography, topographic 
mapping, field reconnaissance and discussion with local staf£ officials, and interested 
local citizens provided additional basis for identifying and evaluating alternate 
alignments. The following recommended plan is shown graphically in Figure 2 2001 
Shallotte Urban Area Thoroughfare Plan. 

The thoroughfares will be grouped into three categories major, minor and local collector 
streets. Appendix A Shallotte Street Inventory in the lavender pages of this report 
contains a detailed listing of all thoroughfares on the Plan including: street name, 
reference points, existing roadway and right-of-way widths, capacities, present and future 
traffic volumes, and recommended design year cross sections and right-of-ways. It 
would be helpful to the reader to refer to Appendix A Shallotte Street Inventory while 
reading the following sections. 



Major Thoroughfare System 

The major thoroughfares are the principal traffic carriers of the urban area. Their 
function is to move intra-urban and inter-urban traffic. The streets, which comprise the 
major thoroughfare system, may also serve as access to abutting property; however, their 
primary function is to carry traffic. Too much access decreases the travel speed along the 
thoroughfare and causes "bottlenecks" which necessitates the need for traffic signals and 
hence reducing capacity. The end result is reduction in capacity of the facility. 

The following is a listing/description of the streets that compose the major thoroughfare 
system on the Thoroughfare Plan. 



US 17 and US 17 Bypass 

US 17 is a major intrastate route which travels from the Virginia State line along 
North Carolina's coastal region to the South Carolina State line. This route carries 
mostly through traffic in the Shallotte planning area. It is anticipated that both 
ends of US 17 that connect the controlled access bypass will need to be widened 
to six (6) lanes by the design year. This need stems from the facility not being 
controlled access and the number of local trips combined with the through trips. 
This need for six (6) lanes would diminish if the Brunswick County's long range 
project the 1-74 corridor is built. 

US 17 Business (Main Street) 

This is the primary artery through the central business district (CBD) of Shallotte. 
NC 130 and NC 179, two beach tourist corridors, at present intersect this facility. 
Portions are already over capacity on a daily basis. Another factor that 
contributes to the over capacity of Main Street is the large amount of driveways 
and the widths of those driveways ranging from 15 feet to 287 feet. 1 During the 
summer months the level of service completely deteriorates most all of every day. 
If key elements of the thoroughfare plan are not implemented traffic volumes will 
approach the necessity of seven lanes. Due to the lack of right-of-way and the 
close proximity of strip development along this corridor widening of this 
magnitude would be cost prohibitive. The section from Cheers Street westward to 
US 17 Bypass will still need to be unproved to five lanes, but there is sufficient 
right-of-way except 0.5 miles from Cheers Street to Village Road. 

NC 130 (Whiteville Road and Holden Beach Road) 

This is a northwest - southeast radial route that carries a lot of beach traffic and 
runs completely through the planning area. NC 130 at present runs concurrent 
with US 17 Business (Main Street) for approximately 1.4 miles through the 
Central Business District (CBD) of Shallotte. Main Street is very congested for 
this very reason. See US 17 Business for more information on Main Street. NC 
130 turns southernly at Shallotte 's busiest intersection. 

This intersection is impacted and now home to the Shallotte Crossing Shopping 
Center. This 290,000 square feet total retail area will bring ~1 7,000 additional 
vehicle trips per day to this area." In addition the Shallotte Crossing Shopping 
Center lies directly in the path of TIP project #U-3462. This direct impact to the 
proposed corridor is the sole reason for alignment and design changes to the 
project. 

Route Designation Change 

With the construction of TIP project #U-3462 NC 130 should be rerouted. As 
you are traveling southbound from the north planning boundary, NC 130 would 
turn onto US 17 Bypass north, make a right onto SR 1357 Smith Avenue, cross 
US 17 Business, then proceed on new location TIP project around shopping 



center, then tie back into NC 130 (Holden Beach Road). 

Future Route Designation Change 

Ultimately with the building of the Shallotte's Thoroughfare Plan NC 130 should 
again be rerouted. The thoroughfare plan's Shallotte Parkway extends from US 
17 Bypass at Ocean Isle Beach Road continues in a semi-circular crossing NC 
130 (This portion is included in the TIP as unfunded project #U-3473.) then back 
to US 17 Bypass at Smith Avenue. (See Shallotte Parkway.) The future rerouting 
of NC 130 would start at Smith Avenue then continue along the Shallotte 
Parkway until it ties back into NC 130 (Whiteville Road). 

NC 130 Improvement 

Five lanes is recommended from the north planning area boundary (NPAB) to US 
17 Business at NC 179 and from US 17 Business at the Wal-Mart to the south 
planning area boundary (SPAB). 

TIP #U-3462 Recommendation 

TIP #U-3462 should include a five (5) lane improvement the entire length of SR 
1357 (Smith Avenue) with a signal at the US 17 Bypass in anticipation of the 
increase in traffic due to the rerouting of NC 130. 

Other Recommendations 

To reduce the amount of through traffic on US 17 Business for Holden Beach 
bound travelers a quick and easy temporary solution would be bigger signage 
designating alternate routes. Larger and more signs could be placed along US 17 
Southbound to indicate Holden Beach via SR 1 130 (Mount Pisgah Road), and SR 
1 136 (Red Bug Road). A large sign on US 17 southbound after the NC 21 1 
intersection could indicate Holden Beach NEXT THREE LEFTS, for example. 

NC 179 (Village Road and Brick Landing Road) 

This is a heavily used radial that carries a lot of beach traffic to and from the 
south. It currently intersects with US 17 Business and NC 130 in the middle of 
Shallotte's busy business district. 

Future Route Designation Change 

It is recommended that NC 179 be relocated onto Old Georgetown Road once the 
final link is completed as proposed in the Brunswick County Thoroughfare plan 
map dated May 15, 2001. The final link of Old Georgetown Road is currently 
funded as TIP project # U-3432. This would provide a more direct route from 
Calabash to Shallotte and keep through travelers out of the congested beach areas 
of Sunset Beach and Ocean Isle Beach. 

NC 179 should then be extended on new location from Hale Swamp Road (SR 
1154) to intersect US 17 Business approximately 1.4 miles west of the current 
intersection as shown in Figure 2. This is currently unfunded in the TIP as 



project #U-3463. A new Bailey Street extension is also planned to intersect at 
this new location which will allow NC 179 traffic easy access to US 17 Bypass. It 
is also recommended that the new location be a two lane facility built on four 
lanes of right of way. This would help to offset the cost of the project. If this 
new location is not built then the existing section of NC 179 would need to be 
widened to five lanes from US 17 Business south to Village Point Road (SR 
1 145). The rerouting of Old Georgetown Road to NC 179 will bring more 
congestion to this corridor. 



SR 1134 (Gray Bridge Road) and Proposed Relocations 

This is a major radial route from the south planning area that carries a mixture of 
local traffic and beach bound traffic. It parallels NC 130 and could serve as a 
good alternate route to the beaches if the relocations are built at each terminus and 
improvements are made to a local road that intersects at SR 1 132 (Shell Point 
Road) outside the planning area. The Brunswick County Thoroughfare plan does 
recommend these improvements. 

SR 1136 (Red Bug Road) 

This is major thoroughfare that serves as a connector from US 17 Business to NC 
130 and facilitates movement of beach traffic. 



SR 1145 (Village Point Road) 

A major radial that serves as a residential access facility for development along 
the Shallotte River. 



SR 1154 (Hale Swamp Road) 

This facility is a parallel north-south radial to NC 179 that facilitates traffic from 
the Ocean Isle Beach and Sunset Beach areas. This facility should be widened to 
three lanes and relocated east of the airport runway. The Ocean Isle Beach 
Airport has plans to extend its runway that could extend across Hale Swamp 
Road. 



SR 1163 (Georgetown Road Extension) 

A new parallel route to NC 179 that will facilitate movement of traffic along the 
beach corridor. This project is programmed for construction as TIP project #U- 
3432. Once the final link is constructed NC 179 should be relocated onto Old 
Georgetown Road. See NC 179 for more information. 



SR 1173 (Sellers Road) 

Sellers Road is a heavily used cut through route. Traffic exiting US 17 Business 
bound for NC 179 south keeps this area congested. Three lanes are 
recommended. See also SR 1234 in minor thoroughfare section. 

SR 1184 (Ocean Isle Beach Road) 

This is a main access route from US 17 and NC 130 to Ocean Isle Beach. 

Shallotte Parkway (Ocean Isle Beach Road Proposed Extension) 

The proposed extension will form part of a loop across the northern part of the 
planning area and facilitate east-west movement in that area and provide better 
access to Ocean Isle Beach from the north. 

SR 1320 (McMiley Road) And Extension 

Part of a northern loop facility that will facilitate east-west traffic flow and open 
up land for development. 



Priorities 

1 ) Endorsement of TEP# U-3462, Smith Avenue, to include improvements of a five lane 
widening along Smith Avenue to the intersection of US 17 Bypass without further 
delays. 

2) Fund TIP# U-3463, NC 179 new location extension, from Hale Swamp Road, SR 

1 154, intersecting with US 17 Business. This extension would eliminate a bottleneck 
on Main Street where NC 130, NC 179, and US 17 Business come together. See the 
purpose & need for this project. 

3) Fund TIP# U-3473, Shallotte Parkway, from Ocean Isle Beach Road, SR 1 184, to 
NCI 30 including new location extension that would tie back into Smith Avenue at 
the US 17 Bypass. This extension will form a northern loop facility to improve 
access to Ocean Isle Beach from the north, and it will promote residential and 
commercial growth in the area. See the purpose & need for this project. 

4) Endorsement of TIP# U-3432, extension of Georgetown Road, from Ocean Isle 
BeachRoad(SR 1184)toNC 179. 



Minor Thoroughfare System 

The minor thoroughfare system serves the function of collecting local traffic from 
residential, commercial or industrial type areas and distributing it to the major 
thoroughfare system They also may supplement the major thoroughfare system by 
carrying minor through traffic movements. Due to the land access type function, minor 
thoroughfares cannot accommodate large volumes of traffic. They are more of a 
collector-distributor system for the major thoroughfares. 

9 



. 



The following is a listing/description of the streets that compose the minor thoroughfare 
system on the Thoroughfare Plan. Appendix A Shallotte Street Inventory has a more 
specific listing of each facility if more technical information is desired. 

SR 1132 (SheU Point Road) 

A designated minor thoroughfare serving mostly local residential traffic. Cross 
section is adequate. 

SR 1191 (Copas Road) 

Residential access collector route. 

SR 1234 (Sellers Road) and Extension 

This is a minor cut through route from US 17 Business to NC 179. The extension 
is located behind Shallotte Middle School. This would help relieve school traffic. 
See also SR 1 173 in major thoroughfare section. 

SR 1316 (Old Shallotte Road) 

This is a minor east-west radial thoroughfare. 

SR 1345 (Royal Oak Road) 

This is a minor radial collector. 

SR 1348 (Mulberry Road) and Extension 

A minor loop facility in the northern planning area that will promote growth and 
facilitate future east-west movement. 

SR 1349 (Bridgers Road and Shallotte Avenue) 

Minor thoroughfare which serves local traffic. 

Commerce Street 

This is an access facility for existing and future development between US 17 
Bypass and US 17 Business. 

Northern Central Business District Loop 

The Northern Central Business District (CBD) Loop would be mainly a new 

facility using some portions of existing streets. Those streets that make up the 

Northern CBD Loop are the Bailey Street Extension, Bailey Street and Northside 

Drive. 

The Northern CBD Loop partners with the Southern CBD Arterial A new parallel 
facility north of US 17 Business to help relieve congestion through the Business 
District. Without construction of this facility it is estimated that US 17 Business 
will have to be widened to five and seven lanes. 



10 



^ mmm 



Bailey Street Extension 

The land between US 17 Bypass and US 17 Business is a projected high 
growth area for commercial development. This facility will serve as an 
access to that development and as a service road for US 17 Bypass. A 
recent field inspection after the Thoroughfare Plan was adopted indicated 
that Bailey Street and Northside Drive do not intersect at SR 1357 (Smith 
Street) as the base mapping indicates. Therefore, a new alignment is 
recommended from Smith Street at Northside Drive where Bailey Street is 
shown on the Thoroughfare Plan Map. Bailey Street will not be a 
thoroughfare. 

Northside Drive 

This is an access facility for existing and future development between US 
17 Bypass and US 17 Business. 

New Britton Road and Extension 

A minor loop facility placed in the northern planning area that will promote 
growth and facilitate future east-west movement. This will help balance the high 
traffic areas by disbursing the commercial zoning in a productive corridor. 

Pender Road and Extension 

Local residential collector is located behind the Shallotte Middle School. This 
would help with the school traffic. 

Southern Central Business District Arterial 

A new parallel facility south of US 17 Business which will help relieve 
congestion through the Business District. This facility partners with the Northern 
CBD Loop. Without construction of this facility it is estimated that US 17 
Business will have to be widened to five and seven lanes. 

Town Street 

This is a new facility that would circulate traffic within the CBD by using the 
Town Hall parking lot. The town collector street would extend from Mulberry 
Street to White Street. 



11 



12 




MAJOR THOROUGHFARE 
MINOR THOROUGHFARE 



SHALLOTTE 

URBAN AREA 



LEGEND 



EXISTING PROPOSED 

■ ■ ■ ■ M 



JANUARY 10, 2001 



ADOPTED 3Y: 
TOWN OF SHALLOTTE 
PUBLIC FORUM 
PUBLIC HEARING 



Recommended Approval 

BY STATEWIDE PLANNING BRANCH 

NORTH CAROLINA DEPARTMENT 
OF TRANSPORTATION 



SMtfiAIY 6,2001 



OCTOBB 26.2000 



3ECEMBH !», 2000 



FBtUAT' tt,«M 



M**CH '6, 20C1 



NORTH CAROLINA 

WMto ar 

STATSWfOg ftANNIWO BRANCH 
IN COOKKATWM WItH 1W 
U S DfiPAKTMBMt C? TRANSFCIflXTfON 

mwSwl miwway adm.inisiha.tion 
■>rwn 4000 6000 aooo 10000 



ion- Map Dote 
Mdren 22, 2000 



FIGURE 2 



12 




SHALLOTTE 

URBAN AREA 
THOROUGHFARE PLAN 



LEGEND 

EXISTING PROPOSED 



MAJOR THOROUGHFARE 
MINOR THOROUGHFARE 



JANUARY 10, 2001 



ADOPTED BY: 
TOWN OF SHALLOTTT; 

puauc FORUM 

PUBLIC HEARING 



TOWN OF SHALLOTTE 

AND VICINITY 

BRUNSWICK COUNTY 

NORTH CAROLINA 

STATSWIDB BANNING BR»NCH 



See Brunswick County Thoroughfare Plan far rural arsas. 



2000 iqflq M00 MM jOOOO 



FIGURE 2 



Purpose and Need Statements 

The purpose and need statement for a project clearly defines the need that exists in the 
area and the purpose the solution will serve. The statements that follow provide a 
planning level purpose and need based on systems level analysis that has occurred during 
development of this transportation plan and the public involvement process associated 
with it. Once thoroughfare projects move into the project planning stage, a more detailed 
project level purpose and need statement may need to be developed. 

The purpose and need statements contained in this section are for the four unfunded new 
location major thoroughfare projects in the urban area. Each purpose and need statement 
is written as a stand-alone summary. Therefore there may be some repetition of topics 
within the project statements. 



NC 179 Extension 

Project Information: 

This project is the Shallotte Urban Area's number one unfunded project. The NC 179 

corridor is the fastest growing residential area in the town plus it flows directly into the 

congested central business district (CBD). There is no other access points available to 

take you around the CBD. 

Project Location: 

This project would begin at the intersection of NC 179 and Hale Swamp Road (SR 1 154) 

then tie into US 17 Business in the vicinity of the Shallotte District Park. 

Project Recommendation: 

This corridor is one mile in length. The project recommendation for this corridor is a 

four- lane parkway facility with limited controlled access. 

Capacity: 

Projected year traffic (2025) is 23,500 vpd. 

System Linkage: 

This extension of NC 179 will provide a closer and more direct link to US 17 Business 

and US 17 Bypass. It is also recommended that NC 179 from Calabash to the beginning 

of this extension be relocated onto Old Georgetown Road once the final link of Old 

Georgetown Road is completed. Old Georgetown Road is currently listed in the TIP as 

project U-3432. The re-designation is in mutual agreement with the 2001 Brunswick 

County Thoroughfare plan. This would provide a more direct route from Calabash to 

Shallotte and keep through travelers out of the congested beach areas of Sunset Beach 

and Ocean Isle Beach. 

Safety Issues: 

NC 179 extension would reduce the amount of traffic on the existing portion especially in 
the school area. The level of service would then be reduced. 

Relationship to Other Plans: 

The proposed functional classification of NC 179 extension is as a major collector in the 
Functional Classification System (FC). FC is the process by which streets and highways 

15 



are grouped into classes, or systems, according to the character of service they are 
intended to provide. FC is used for assessing the extent, conditions, and performance of 
the highway system; as a planning tool for needs assessments; for apportionment of 
funds; and to establish jurisdictional responsibility. 

Shallotte Parkway 

Project Information: 

This project is another TIP identified unfunded project TIP#U-3473 in the Shallotte Urban Area. 

Project Location: 

The Shallotte Parkway would extend north from US 1 7 Bypass at Ocean Isle Beach Road 
crossing NC 130. (This part is 2.8 miles in length and is presently included in the TIP.) It would 
continue northeast and tie back into US 17 Bypass at Smith Avenue. The second part is two (2) 
miles in length and not presently included in the TIP. 

Project Recommendation: 

The project recommendation for this corridor is a parkway facility with turn bays. It could 
initially be a two-lane facility built on four lanes of right of way to offset the cost of the project. 
Traffic volumes will start to near capacity towards the end of the design year for a two lane 
facility. Right of way costs for this popular beach/retirement/golf community would also 
increase. 

Social Demands/Economic Development: 

The proposed extension will form part of a loop across the northern part of the planning area and 
facilitate east-west movement in that area and provide better access to the beaches from the north. 

Capacity: 

Projected year traffic (2025) is approximately 20,000 vehicles per day. 

System Linkage: 

Route Designation Change 

With the completed construction of Smith Avenue extension (TIP project #U-3462) NC 130 
should be rerouted. Beginning in the north urban area, NC 130, Whiteville Road, would turn onto 
US 17 Bypass north and run concurrently. It would then turn right onto Smith Avenue, SR 1357, 
cross US 17 Business, proceed around shopping center, then tie back into NC 130, Holden Beach 
Road. 

Future Route Designation Change: 

Ultimately with the construction of the completed Shallotte Parkway, NC 130 should again be 
rerouted. The Shallotte Parkway would extend north from US 17 Bypass at Ocean Isle Beach 
Road crossing NC 130. (This portion is included in the TIP as unfunded project #U-3473.) It 
would continue northeast to tie back into US 17 Bypass at Smith Avenue. The future rerouting of 
NC 130 would start at NC 130, Whiteville Road, then continue along the Shallotte Parkway until 
it ties back into Smith Avenue. 

Safety Issues: 

Shallotte Parkway would help movements in and around the urban area. It would help some of 
the Main Street congestion. Main Street has projected volumes of 39,000 vehicles per day. 

Relationship to Other Plans: 

The Division of Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation has recommended that bicycle 
accommodations be provided along Ocean Isle Beach Road. It is expected to be used in the 
future rerouting of a portion of the "Ports of Call" bicycle route in the area. 



16 



US 17 - NC 130 Connector 

Project Information: 

This project is a new location project that originated out of a 2001 Brunswick County 

Thoroughfare public forum. 

Project Location: 

This project begins on NC 130 Holden Beach Road approximately 1000 feet north of SR 

1 132 Civietown Road. The terminus is on US 17 approximately one mile east of SR 

1345 Royal Oaks Road. 

Project Recommendation: 

The project recommendation for this corridor is a three-lane facility. This project would 
provide a route to Holden Beach. 

Transportation Demand: 

It would reduce the congestion on NC 130 north of the project beginning. There are also 

rural routes, SR 1 130 and SR 1 1 15, which are cut-through routes for a small number of 

travelers aware of these corridors. One of these routes could be upgraded by a major 

widening, but would be three or four times longer and would impact the social 

environment. The connector would negate upgrading one of these cut through routes. 

Capacity: 

Projected year traffic (2025) is 10,300 vpd. 

System Linkage: 

This connector would provide a more direct route to Holden Beach for travelers 

approaching from the northeast. It would also allow through travelers to get around the 

Town of Shallotte. US 17 is a major thoroughfare and connects the Shallotte Urban area 

to two large metropolitan areas. US 17 extends southerly to North Myrtle Beach, South 

Carolina and northerly to Wilmington, North Carolina. Both cities are less than an hour 

away. 

Gray Bridge Road Extension SR 1134 

Project Information: 

This project is a long-range project for the Shallotte Urban area. 

Project Location: 

This project is a partial new location of existing Gray Bridge Road and a new location 

extension ultimately to Holden Beach's mainland. 

Project Recommendation: 

The project recommendation for this corridor is a two-lane facility. 

Transportation Demand: 

NC 130 Holden Beach Road is the only link between the Town of Shallotte and the Town 

of Holden Beach. Traffic volumes are progressively increasing to the annual growth rate 

of 3.3% in the last 10 years. 

Capacity: 

2001 ADT is 6,000 vehicles per day (vpd). Projected year traffic (2025) is 15,000 vpd. 

Safety Issues: 

Gray Bridge Road extension would reduce traffic in the southern region of NC 130 by 

providing another route to the mainland of Holden Beach. 

17 



Relationship to Other Plans: 

The Gray Bridge Road extension is also included in the 2001 Brunswick County 
Thoroughfare plan. The Brunswick County thoroughfare plan ties into the corridor at the 
urban area boundary. 

Public Involvement 

Public involvement for the 1999 study included seven working meetings with the 
thoroughfare plan committee. The committee worked diligently to produce a plan that 
provided community cohesiveness, economic vitality, and reduction in traffic congestion. 
The agenda subject of each meeting is listed below. 

1) Initial Thoroughfare Plan Update 

2) Thoroughfare Status Report 

3) Data Collection Procedures 

4) Smart Growth & Funding Presentation 

5) Future Year Projections 

6) Capacity Analysis 

7) Recommended Plan 

A public forum was conducted on October 26, 2000. A public hearing was held on 
December 19, 2000 and the Board of Alderman adopted the plan on February 6, 2001. 






18 



Chapter 2 
Implementation of the Thoroughfare Plan 



Implementation is one of the most important aspects of the thoroughfare plan. Unless 
implementation is an integral part of this process, the effort and expense associated with 
developing the plan is lost. There are several tools available, but not limited to, assisting 
the Town of Shallotte in the implementation of the thoroughfare plan. They are as 
follows: 

State-Municipal Adoption of the Thoroughfare Plan 

The Town of Shallotte and the North Carolina Department of Transportation have 
mutually adopted the thoroughfare plan shown in Figure 2. The mutually approved plan 
may now serve as a guide for the mutual development of the road and highway system 
for the Town. The approval of the plan by the Town also enables standard road 
regulations and land use controls to be used effectively in the implementation of this 
plan. As part of the plan, the Town and Department of Transportation shall reach 
agreement on the responsibilities for existing and proposed streets and highways. 
Facilities which are designated a State responsibility will be constructed and maintained 
by the Division of Highways. Facilities which are designated a municipal responsibility 
will be constructed and maintained by the municipality. 

Subdivision Controls 

Subdivision regulations require every subdivider to submit to the Town Planning 
Commission a plan of any proposed subdivision. It also requires that subdivisions be 
constructed to certain standards. Through this process, it is possible to require the 
subdivision streets to conform to the thoroughfare plan and to reserve or protect 
necessary right-of-way for projected roads and highways that are to become a part of the 
thoroughfare plan. The construction of subdivision streets to adequate standards reduces 
maintenance costs and simplifies the transfer of streets to the State Highway System. 
Appendix G Subdivision Ordinances & Design Standards outlines the recommended 
subdivision design standards as they pertain to road construction. 

Land Use Controls 

Land use regulations are an important tool in that they regulate future land development 
and minimize undesirable development along roads and highways. The land use 
regulatory system can improve highway safety by requiring sufficient setbacks to provide 
for adequate sight distances and by requiring off-street parking. 

Zoning Ordinances 

Zoning is probably the single most commonly used legal device available for 
implementing a community's land-use plan. To paraphrase the U.S. Department of 
Commerce 1924 Standard Zoning Enabling Act, on which most present-day legislation is 



19 



based, zoning may be defined as the division of a municipality (or other governmental 
unit) into districts, and the regulation within the districts of: 

1. The height and bulk of buildings and other structures, 

2. The area of a lot that may be occupied and the size of required open spaces, 

3. The density of population, and 

4. The use of buildings and land for trade, industry, residence, or other purposes. 

The characteristic feature of the zoning ordinance that distinguishes it from most other 
regulations is that it differs from district to district, rather than being uniform throughout 
a city. Thus, a given area might be restricted to single-family residential development 
with minimum lot size requirements and setback provisions appropriate for development. 
In other areas, commercial or industrial development might be permitted, and regulations 
would be enacted to control such development. Building code provisions or sanitary 
regulations, on the other hand, normally apply to all buildings in a certain category 
regardless of where they may be situated within a city. 

The zoning ordinance does not regulate the design of streets, utility installation, the 
reservation or dedication of parks, street rights-of-way, school sites, and related matters. 
These are controlled by subdivision regulations or possibly by use of an official map. 
The zoning ordinance should however, be carefully coordinated with these and other 
control devices. 

Official Maps 

The roadway corridor official map (or official map) is a document, adopted by the 
legislative body of the community that pinpoints and preserves the location of proposed 
streets against encroachment. In effect, the official map serves notice on developers that 
the State or municipality intends to acquire certain specific property. The official map 
serves as a positive influence for sound development by reserving sites for public 
improvements in anticipation of actual need. 

The NCDOT position is that it will limit the use of official maps to large scale, fully 
access controlled facilities planned for rapidly developing areas outside of municipal 
jurisdictions. For projects within municipal jurisdictions, official maps should be 
prepared and adopted by the local government. Municipalities may adopt official maps 
that extend beyond its extraterritorial jurisdiction with approval from the Board of 
County Commissioners. It should be recognized that an official map places severe but 
temporary restrictions on private property rights. These restrictions are in the form of a 
prohibition, for up to three years, on the issuance of building permits or the approval of 
subdivisions on property lying within an official map alignment. The three-year 
reservation period begins with the request for development approval. This authority 
should be used carefully and only in cases where less restrictive powers are found to be 
ineffective. 

Requests for NCDOT to prepare and adopt an official map should be directed to the 
Manager of the Program Development Branch. For cities contemplating the adoption of 

20 



an official map, there are two ways in which the city may proceed. The first is to 
consider the official map statute as a stand-alone authority and use it as the basis for local 
adoption of an official map. Alternatively, the second approach is to adopt a local 
ordinance modeled after the statute, but modified to fit local circumstances and clarify the 
statute. Regardless of the approach taken, several procedural steps will need to be 
considered, such as establishing procedures for consideration of variance petitions. 

Once the project has been selected and the alignment determined, maps must be prepared 
that are suitable for filing with the County Register of Deeds Office. The map should 
show the proposed alignment in sufficient detail to identify the functional design and the 
preliminary right-of-way boundaries. Since the purpose of the map is to show the effect 
on properties along the project path, the existing property boundaries should be 
identified. As an additional requirement, within one year of the adoption of an official 
map, work must begin on an environmental impact study or preliminary engineering. 

It is important to recognize the risks inherent in the adoption of an official map prior to 
completing the environmental studies. Projects to be funded using any federal funds 
require the unbiased evaluation of alternate alignments. This means that other 
alternatives will be studied and compared to the protected alignment. 

The above information is only to serve as an introduction to official maps, and in no way 
provides the information necessary to begin development of an official map. The 
Program Development Branch of the North Carolina Department of Transportation is 
responsible for facilitating the adoption of Official Street Maps. Cities considering 
Official Street Map projects should contact this Branch for their "Guidelines for 
Municipalities Considering Adoption of Roadway Corridor Official Maps" 1 at: 

The Program Development Branch 

NC Department of Transportation 

1534 Mail Service Center 

Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1534 

Development Reviews 

Driveway access to a State-maintained street or highway is reviewed by the District 
Engineer's office and by the Traffic Engineering and Safety Branch of the North Carolina 
Department of Transportation. In addition, any development expected to generate large 
volumes of traffic (e.g., shopping centers, fast food restaurants, or large industries) may 
be comprehensively studied by staff from the Traffic Engineering and Safety Branch, 
Statewide Planning Branch, and/or Roadway Design Unit of NCDOT. If done at an early 
stage, it is often possible to significantly improve the development's accessibility while 
preserving the integrity of the thoroughfare plan. 



1 "Guidelines for Municipalities Considering Adoption of Roadway Corridor Official 
Maps," prepared by NCDOT Program, Policy and Budget Branch. 

21 



Funding Sources 



Capital Improvements Program 

A capital improvement program makes it easier to build a planned thoroughfare 
system. This capital improvement program consists of two lists of projects. The 
first is a list of highway projects that are designated as a municipal responsibility 
and are to be implemented with municipal funds. The second is a list of local 
projects designated as state responsibility to be included in the Transportation 
Improvement Program. 

Transportation Improvement Program 

North Carolina's Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) is a two year 
process. It is a document that lists all major construction projects the Department 
of Transportation plans for the next seven years. Similar to local Capital 
Improvement Program projects, TIP projects are matched with projected funding 
sources. When the TIP is updated, completed projects are removed, existing 
projects are evaluated, and new projects are added. 

During biennial TIP public hearings, municipalities request projects to be 
included in the TIP. A Board of Transportation (BOT) member reviews all of the 
project requests in a particular area, most commonly the division, of the state. 
The BOT member for the Shallotte Urban Area is Mr. Lanny Wilson. 

Based on the technical feasibility, need, and available funding, the Board 
member, the Division Engineer, and NCDOT staff decides which projects will be 
included in the TIP. In addition to highway construction and widening, TIP funds 
are available for bridge replacement projects, highway safety projects, public 
transportation projects, railroad projects, and bicycle projects. The Division 
Engineer for the Shallotte Urban Area is Mr. H. Allen Pope, PE. 

It is very important that the local area keep the BOT member informed of the 
transportation needs in their area at all times. North Carolina's TIP process has 
modified from an annual process to a two-year process in the year 2000. This 
process extended the public comment period to one year. During this time local 
areas need to lobby their assigned BOT member for their prospective projects. 
Methods of procurement can be letters, meetings, and phone calls. Provide the 
BOT member with a current transportation plan report of your prospective area, 
any other traffic/land use plans or traffic analysis for your area, and a current list 
of transportation priorities. 

There is a great need for transportation improvements and not enough funding to 
fulfill all requests. The BOT member has the hard job of balancing all requests 
using safety, need, federal and state significance, and funding. 



22 



Industrial Access Funds 

If an industry wishes to develop property that does not have access to a state 
maintained highway and certain economic conditions are met, then funds may be 
made available for construction of an access road. 

Small Urban Funds 

Small Urban funds are annual discretionary funds made to municipalities with 
qualifying projects. The maximum amount is $300,000 per year per project. A 
town may have multiple projects. Requests for Small Urban Fund assistance 
should be directed to the appropriate Board of Transportation member and 
Division Engineer. 

The North Carolina Highway Trust Fund Law 

The Highway Trust Fund Law was established in 1989 as a 13.5-year plan with four 
major goals for North Carolina's roads and highways. These goals are: 

1. To complete the remaining 2,768 km (1,716 mi.) of four lane construction on the 
5800 km (3,600 mi.) North Carolina Intrastate System. 

2. To construct a mukilane connector in Asheville and portions of multilane loops in 
Charlotte, Durham, Greensboro, Raleigh, Wilmington, and Winston-Salem 

3. To supplement the secondary roads appropriation in order to pave, by 1999, 16,100 
km (10,000 mi.) of unpaved secondary roads carrying 50 or more vehicles per day, 
and all other unpaved secondary roads by 2006. 

4. To supplement the Powell Bill Program. 

In this 26-year planning period, Shallotte should look forward to the paving of most, if 
not all, of its unpaved roads on the state maintained system in the planning area. Also, 
there will be an increase in Shallotte's Powell Bill Funds if these newly paved roads are 
in the Shallotte Corporate Limits. 

For more information on the Highway Trust Fund Law, contact the Program 
Development Branch of the North Carolina Department of Transportation. 



23 



24 



Chapter 3 
Existing and Projected Conditions 



Factors Affecting Transportation 

Major factors influence the transportation needs and deficiencies of an area. These 
factors include population, economy, environmental concerns and traffic. Examining 
these factors help to explain historic travel patterns and project the groundwork for 
thoroughfare planning. 

In order to formulate an adequate future year thoroughfare plan, reliable forecasts of 
future travel characteristics must be achieved. Population, vehicle usage trends, economy 
and land use play a significant role in detennining the transportation needs of the area. 
Additional items may include the effects of legal controls such as subdivision regulations 
and zoning ordinances, the availability of public utilities and the physical features of the 
area. 

The first step in the development of the thoroughfare plan is to define the planning period 
and area. The planning period is usually 25 years. The base year for Shallotte is 1999 
and the future design year is 2025. The planning area is typically where urbanization is 
expected to occur during the planning period. The planning area is shown on Figure 11 
Planning Area & Zone Map. 

Population 

Population is directly related to travel. The volume of traffic on any given section of 
roadway is closely related to the size and distribution of the population it serves. 
Therefore the analysis of past trends helps one to estimate future travel patterns based on 
population. 

The Town of Shallotte has developed into Brunswick County's "Central Business 
District." It is no longer a sleepy small urban town comprised mostly of retirees and 
tourism. The Town is centered at the intersection of US 17, NC 179 and NC 130, just 
minutes away from the North Carolina Coast. 

Although Shallotte 's composition is changing, still, much of Shallotte's travel originates 
outside the immediate area. Population trends and projections can be used as good 
indicators of what to expect with traffic growth in the future. 

Shallotte's population will steadily increase at a rate equivalent to Brunswick County but 
almost twice that of the State. This would seem logical in that coastal regions attract high 
tourist volumes and is also an attractive area for people locating after retirement. 

The most important population estimate for development of the thoroughfare plan is that 
of the planning area. Although the government census data is not available for the 
transportation planning area, other methods of estimation of population are available. For 

25 



the update of this study socio-economic data was taken. Socio-economic data is 100% 
inventory of all the homes and employees in the urban area. CHAPTER 4 
Travel Model Analysis goes into more detail. Population trends for the Shallotte Urban 
Area and Brunswick County are shown in Table 1. The population projection for future 
year 2020 is from the Office of State Budget, Planning, and Management. Then trendline 
analysis was used to estimate the future year 2025 except for the Shallotte Urban Area. 







Population and 


Projections 








Shallotte 


Brunswick 


North 


Year 


Shallotte 


Urban Area 


County 


Carolina 


1970 


597 


— 


24223 


5,084,411 


1980 


680 


_ 


35777 


5,880,095 


1990 


1073 


— 


50985 


6,632,448 


1993 


— 


6017 


— 


— ■ 


1994 


1176 


— 


— 


— 


1999 


— 


10962 


— 


— 


2020 


— 


6800 


102,626 


8,784,259 


2025 


1944 


27550 


109,316 


9,171,268 



Table 1 Population & Projections 

Similarly to population, vehicle registration helps to estimate future travel patterns. As 
vehicle registration grows and the person per vehicle decreases, this indicates a highly 
dependent vehicle area as shown in Table 2 Population to Vehicle Registration 
Comparison. Information on vehicle registration provided the Division of Motor 
Vehicles is listed by county. Therefore Brunswick County information is used here to 
make the comparison. 111 The vehicle registration (taken from census data) projects future 
year data using trendline analysis. 



Year 


Vehicle Registration 


Brunswick 
Population 


Person/Vehicle 


1970 


11653 


24223 


2.08 


1980 


23419 


35777 


1.53 


1990 


38691 


50985 


1.32 


2020 


78664 


102626 


1.30 


2025 


85423 


109316 


1.28 



Table 2 Population to Vehicle Registration Comparison 



26 



Brunswick County 
Population to Vehicle Registration Comparison 




□ Vehicle Registration Q Population 



Economy 

The Town of Shallotte's economic base was once derived primarily of tourism and 
retirees. However this is not the case today. Large commercial development has moved 
into the neighborhood. These businesses are attracting consumers in and around the 
county from Bolivia to Holden Beach, Sunset Beach and Calabash. 

Environmental Concerns 

In recent years, environmental considerations associated with highway construction have 
come to the forefront of the planning process. The evaluation of environmental concerns 
during a long-range transportation analysis is not only smart planning but shows 
dedication to preserve the environment. 

Legislation has been around for years. Starting with the National Environmental Policy 
Act (NEPA) and continuing with TEA-21. However Section 102 of the NEPA act 
requires the execution of an environmental impact statement (EIS) for road projects with 
significant impact on the environment. Evaluation of environmental concerns before and 
during the perception of road projects in a long rang transportation study or otherwise 
helps to minimize damage to the environment. Minimization is achieved through early 
recognition of sensitive areas. Some of these areas included water quality, historic 
properties, wildlife, and parks. This report provides an early evaluation of recorded 
environmental concerns and is not meant to contain detail necessary of an EIS. 

In the 1994 thoroughfare planning study a very detailed preliminary analysis of 
environmental concerns were researched. This updated 1999 study found no changes in 
the information provided in the 1994 Shallotte Thoroughfare Plan report. lv Additional 
information on Air Quality Discharge is included. 



27 



Heritage 

The Webster dictionary defines "Heritage" as property inherited or tradition passed down 
from proceeding generations. The use of heritage to describe the concern in this section 
is most appropriate. Heritage denotes a sense of pride and protection, which is why the 
following concerns are listed in the section. They are nationally Registered Historical 
Structures, National Heritage occurrence sites, Natural areas and Land & Water 
Conservation Fund areas. 

Historic Sites 

Historic sites and districts that are listed in the National Register of Historic places or are 
significant as determined by the Department of Cultural Resources, Division of Archives 
and History were inventoried for the planning area. The federal government has issued 
guidelines requiring State Transportation Departments to make special efforts to preserve 
historic sites. In addition, the State of North Carolina has issued its own guidelines for 
the preservation of historic sites. These two pieces of legislation are described below: 

National Historic Preservation Act - Section 106 of this act requires the Department of 
Transportation to identify historic properties listed in the National Register of Historic 
Places and properties eligible to be listed. The Department must consider the impact of 
its road projects on these properties and consult with the Federal Advisory Council on 
Historic Preservation. 

NC General Statue 121- 12(a) - This statue requires the Department of Transportation to 
identify historic properties listed on the National Register, but not necessarily those 
eligible to be listed. The Department must consider impacts and consult with the North 
Carolina Historical Commission, but it is not bound by their decision. 

The Shallotte Urban Area boundary expanded during this study. Therefore the urban area 
has one Nationally Registered Historical Landmark as shown in Figure 3. 

T.B. McClintic Vessel - Tripp's Marina, Shallotte Point 

Park Properties 

The location of publicly owned land for use as public parks, recreation areas, or 
wildlife/waterfowl refuges in Shallotte was investigated to determine the possible impacts 
of the various projects studied. The federal government has issued guidelines through 
Section 4(f) of NEPA requiring State Transportation Departments to make special efforts 
to preserve publicly owned lands used for recreational purposes. Minimal impacts will 
occur to some of the conservation areas where a new road will cross at a perpendicular 
angle or widening of an existing road that crosses the area. 

A closer study should be done in regard to the local public properties prior to the 
construction of any proposal. 



28 



Endangered Species 

A goal in transportation planning is to have an environment where all may live and dwell 
together in harmony. This does not only suggest people, but plants and animals as well. 
The Threatened and Endangered Species Act of 1973 allows the U. S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service to impose measures on the Department of Transportation. These measures 
mitigate the environmental impacts of a highway project on endangered plants, animals, 
and critical wildlife habitats. By locating rare species in the long range planning and 
project planning stage, impacts can be avoided or minimized. A detailed field 
investigation is therefore required prior to any construction^ 

There is an enormous listing of National Heritage Occurrences in the urban area. 
National Heritage Occurrences is a listing of rare species, natural communities, geologic 
features, and special animal habitats. This information is complied from a variety of 
sources, including field survey, museums, literature, and personal communications. This 
listing of elements is maintained in the Biological and Conservation Database (BCD). 
The Nature Conservancy developed the methodology to create the database and they 
maintain it as well.™ 

Occurrences 

There are a total of 30 species listed in the NC National Heritage Program. Federal and 
State Law protect species listed as endangered, threatened, and special concern (state 
law). There are 19 currently State listed endangered, threatened, and special concern 
species out of the total 30 occurrences. A listing of the species is in Appendix E 
Environmental Listings. Figure 3 shows the multitude of occurrences throughout the 
urban area. 

Water Quality 

Wetlands 

In general terms, wetlands are lands where saturation with water is the dominant factor in 
determining the nature of soil development and the types of plant and animal 
communities living in the soil and on its surface. The single feature that most wetlands 
share is soil or substrata that is at least periodically saturated with or covered by water. 
Water creates severe physiological problems for all plants and animals except those that 
are adapted for life in it or in saturated soil 

Wetlands are crucial ecosystems in our environment. They help regulate and maintain 
the hydrology of our river, lakes, and streams by slowly storing and releasing 
floodwaters. They help maintain the quality of our water by storing nutrients, reducing 
sediment loads, and reducing erosion. They are also critical to fish and wildlife 
populations. Wetlands provide an important habitat for about one third of the plant and 
animal species that are listed as endangered or threatened species. It is to no wonder why 
the Shallotte Urban Area has such a large number of occurrences. 



29 



The Shallotte Urban Area has two rivers flowing through the area. The Shallotte River 
flows right in the heart of the area while the Lockwood Folly River impacts the 
northeastern part of the urban area. 

Fish Nursery Areas 

Brunswick County is part of the Coastal Area Management Act (CAMA). This act 
requires a permit for all land development or land disturbing activities within designated 
areas of environmental concern in the 20 coastal counties. This of course impacts 
development in the Shallotte Urban Area. 

The Shallotte and Lockwood Folly rivers and its tributaries within the planning area are 
designated as primary nursery areas where the initial post-larval and juvenile 
development of young flnfish and crustaceans occurs as shown in Figure 4. These are 
highly protected areas and should be treated with the most care. 

High Quality Water 

High Quality Water (HQW) is water considered as having excellent (high) water quality 
or designated as an outstanding resource. Point and non-point source pollution 
management strategies are applicable to these waters. Coastal HQW streams has a 1/2- 
mile buffer generated. See Figure 4 for the HQW zones in the Shallotte Urban Area.™ 

National Wetlands Inventory 

In 1974, the US Fish and Wildlife Service directed its Office of Biological Services to 
conduct an inventory of the nation's wetlands. This National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) 
became operational in 1977. Wetland delineation depicted on maps was produced by 
stereoscopically interpreting high altitude aerial photography. The National Wetlands 
Inventory is shown in Figure 4 Water Quality Concerns. vm 



Pollution Concerns 

Superfund 

The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act 
(CERCLA), commonly known as Superfund, was enacted by Congress on December 11, 
1980. This law created a tax on the chemical and petroleum industries and provided 
broad Federal authority to respond directly to releases or threatened releases of hazardous 
substances that may endanger public health or the environment. Over five years, $1.6 
billion was collected and the tax went to a trust fund for cleaning up abandoned or 
uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. CERCLA: 

• established prohibitions and requirements concerning closed and abandoned 
hazardous waste sites; 

• provided for liability of persons responsible for releases of hazardous waste at these 
sites; and 

• established a trust fund to provide for cleanup when no responsible party could be 
identified. 

30 



The law authorizes two kinds of response actions: 

• Short-term removals, where actions may be taken to address releases or threatened 
releases requiring prompt response. 

• Long-term remedial response actions, that permanently and significantly reduce the 
dangers associated with releases or threats of releases of hazardous substances that 
are serious, but not immediately life threatening. These actions can be conducted 
only at sites listed on EPA's National Priorities List (NPL). 

Pollution Discharge 

The National Pollution Discharge Elimination System Sites (NPDES) are establishments 
who have been given a permit to discharge wastewater into streams. 

Ground water recharge/discharge sites are recorded sites where possible contamination 
has occurred due to leaking storage tanks. The storage tanks may contain or have 
contained some hazardous material such as petroleum products. Nine of these locations 
appear in the planning area. 

Air Quality Pollution sites are recorded sites where possible release of contamination into 
the air has occurred. 

Pollution concerns are shown in Figure 5 Pollution Concerns. 



Transportation 

Traffic 

A comparison of 1988, 1994, 1998 and 1999 average annual daily traffic volumes 
(AADT) on selected major roads and highways in the Shallotte Urban Area was analyzed 
using trendlines as shown in Figure 8 Existing & Projected AADT Map. Also shown 
are projections for the year 2025, assuming no changes to the existing street system are 
made. These projections were based on model analysis of historical and anticipated 
population and economic growth patterns and land use trends. 



Capacity, Width, and Alignment Deficiencies 

North Carolina's standard for highway construction calls for 1 1 foot lanes on all 
highways with traffic volumes greater than 2000 ADT (average daily traffic) or design 
speeds greater than 50 miles per hour. This includes all primary arterials. A minimum 
lane width of 9 feet can be tolerated on collector roads with an ADT of less than 400 
vehicles per day. The minimum level of service for minor collector roads dictates a 40 
mph design speed during peak traffic conditions. 

Design requirements for thoroughfares vary according to the desired capacity and level of 
service to be provided. Universal standards in the design of thoroughfares are not 
practical. Each road or highway section must be individually analyzed and its design 

31 



requirements determined by the amount and type of projected traffic, existing capacity, 
desired level of service, and available right of way. 

The level of service is a function of the ease of movement experienced by motorists using 
the facility. (See Appendix D Level of Service.) The ability of a motorist to drive at a 
desired speed is dependent upon many factors. Included are the physical design of the 
road, the amount and character of traffic control devices, the influence and character of 
traffic generated by abutting property, and the imposed speed restrictions. The level of 
service is generally indicated by the overall travel speed experienced by traffic. 
Recommended minimum levels of service for roads and highways included in the 
Shallotte Urban Area are given in the Table 3 below. 






/Minimum Levels of Service for Roads and Highways 


Facility 


Overall Travel Speed 
During Peak Travel Conditions 


Major and Minor Arterials 
Major Collector Roads 
Minor Collector Roads 


50-55 MPH 

45-50 MPH 

40 MPH 



Table 3 Minimum Levels of Service for Roads and Highways 

For driver convenience, ease of operations, and safety, it would be desirable to widen all 
existing roads and highways to provide a minimum lane width of 12 feet. However, 
when considering overall statewide needs and the available highway revenue, it is found 
that these levels of improvement applied statewide would be impractical. Therefore, it is 
necessary to establish minimum tolerable widths for existing roads with respect to traffic 
demands that would be economically feasible. The widths used in determining the 
existing lane deficiencies in the urban area are given in Table 4. 

An analysis of roads in the Shallotte Urban area was made to determine if the projected 
traffic (year 2025) would exceed the practical capacity or the desired Level of Service 
(LOS) of the system. See Appendix D Level of Service. The projected volumes are 
shown in Figure 8. Comparing the projected traffic to available capacities or desirable 
LOS, it was anticipated that the following roads will be experiencing capacity or LOS 
related problems within the design period: 

1. US 17 Business (Main Street) 

2. US 17 from the Shallotte area to NC 21 1 in Supply 

3. NC 130 from Shallotte to Holden Beach 

4. NC 179 Village Point to Main Street 



32 



Minimum Tolerable Lone Widths (in feet) 




Principal 


Minor 




ADT 


Arterials 


Arterials 


Collectors 


over 2000 


11 


11 


11 


400-2,000 


— 


10 


10 


100-400 


~ 


10 


9 


below 100 


— 


— 


9 



Table 4 Minimum Tolerable Lane Widths 

There are a number of major roads in the urban area that have substandard widths. The 
standards established in Table 4 were used in the analysis. The widths needed to bring 
these roads up to standard are given as the recommended cross section in the Error! 
Reference source not found.. Because of the substantial cost of upgrading all secondary 
roads to standard, narrow widths may have to be tolerated until sufficient funds are 
available for improvements. 

High Frequency Accident Profile 

Traffic accident statistics are often used as an indicator for locating congestion problems. 
This data is reviewed to identify problem locations or deficiencies such as poor design, 
inadequate signing, ineffective parking, or poor sight distance. Accident patterns 
identified from analysis of accident data can lead to improvements that will reduce the 
number of accidents. 

The crash statistics have been generated and are available through North Carolina's Crash 
Database. This database provides an inventory of reported crashes on record that have 
occurred within the State of North Carolina. 

The Equivalent Property Damage Only Index (EPDO) is used to account for the severity 
of crashes. The EPDO Index gives injury crashes more weight than property damage 
only crashes. The Severity of Crashes is calculated by dividing the EPDO by the number 
of crashes. In general, the higher the severity index the more severe the accident. The 
severity index ranges from 0.0 to 20.0. 

This profile contains data for traffic accidents reported for the time period from January 
1, 1997 through December 31, 1999. Note that many traffic accidents do go unreported 
for a variety of reasons, and this simply provides a list of occurrences with 15 or more 
reported accidents within 150 feet of the intersections. 



33 





High Frequency Accident Profile 






in the Shallotte Urban Area 






For the Reporting Period of January 1, 1997 through December 31, 1999 








Number of 


Equivalent Property 


Severity of 


Municipality 


Intersection of 


Reported 
Crashes 


Damage Only 
Index 


the Reported 
Crashes 


Road A 


RoadB 


SHALLOTTE 


US17 


US17B 


51 


380.2 


7.45 


RURAL-BRUNSWICK 


US17 


NC211 


20 


155 


7.75 


SHALLOTTE 


US17 


SR1316 


18 


289.8 


16.10 


SHALLOTTE 


NC130 


SRI 134 


17 


181.6 


10.68 


RURAL-BRUNSWICK 


NC130 


SRI 130 


17 


68.8 


4.05 


SHALLOTTE 


NC130 


MAIN 


16 


143.6 


8.98 


SHALLOTTE 


US17 


NCI 30 


15 


157.4 


10.49 



Table 5 High Frequency Accident Profile 



Bridge Replacement Program 

Bridges are a vital and unique element of a highway system. First, they represent the 
highest unit investment of all elements of the system. Second, any inadequacy or 
deficiency in a bridge reduces the value of the total investment. Third, a bridge presents 
the greatest opportunity of all potential highway failures for disruption of community 
welfare. Finally, and most importantly, a bridge represents the greatest opportunity of all 
highway failures for loss of life. For these reasons, it is imperative that bridges be 
constructed to the same design standards as the system of which they are a part. 

Congress enacted the National Bridge Inspection Program Standards on April 27, 1971, 
implementing the Federal Highway Act of 1968. These standards require that "all 
structures defined as bridges located on any of the Federal-Aid Highway Systems be 
inspected and the safe load carrying capacity computed at regular intervals, not to exceed 
two years." A sufficiency index number has been calculated for each bridge to establish 
eligibility and priority for replacement. The bridges with the highest priority are replaced 
as Federal-Aid funds and State funds are made available. 

The Bridge Replacement Program puts $110 Million per year on average into a special 
fund for bridge replacement. The most critical bridges based on statewide needs are 
selected into this program, thus establishing a priority. To be eligible for Federal Bridge 
replacement funds, bridges must be classified as deficient with a sufficiency rating of less 
than 50. To qualify for rehabilitation, the sufficiency rating must be less than 80. 

The North Carolina DOT's Bridge Maintenance Unit, with assistance from various 
consultants, inspects all bridges on the State Highway System. All bridges in Brunswick 
County have been analyzed, rated, appraised, and inventoried, and the resulting data has 
been reduced to a more readily useable form as a management tool. 



34 



A sufficiency rating was used in the analysis to determine the deficiency of each bridge. 
The sufficiency rating is a method of evaluating factors that determine whether a bridge 
is sufficient to remain in service. Factors used include: structural adequacy and safety, 
serviceability and functional obsolescence, essentiality for public use, type of structure, 
and traffic safety features. The lesult of this method is a percentage in which 100 percent 
represents an entirely sufficient bridge and zero percent represents an entirely insufficient 
or deficient bridge. 



Functionally Obsolete 

Functionally Obsolete bridges can be narrow, have inadequate under-clearances, and 
have insufficient load capacity. They also can be poorly aligned with the roadway and 
can no longer adequately service today's traffic. Table 6 shows the functionally obsolete 
bridges in the Shallotte Urban Area that has sufficiency ratings of 50 percent or less. See 
Figure 9 Bridge Deficiency Map for the location of these bridges. 



Functionally Obsolete Bridges in the Shallotte Urban Area 


Bridge # Facility - Feature 


Suffiency Rating TIP 


48 NC 1 30 - Shallotte River 


55.0% 


49 SR 1 1 1 5 - Brch. of Lockwood Folly 


59.7% 


57 NC 21 1 - Juniper Creek 


61.1% 


59 SR 1 1 1 5 - Brch. of Lockwood Folly 


58.8% 


64 SR 1 1 54 - Sauce Pan Creek 


58.9% 


76 NC 21 1 Beaver Dam Creek 


55.5% 


80 US 17 - Bishops Creek 


72.0% 


1 82 SR 1 1 84 - Branch of Shallotte River 


60.7% 


Total 8 



Table 6 Functionally Obsolete Bridges 



Structurally Deficient 

Structurally Deficient bridges are bridges with insufficient load-carrying capacity. The 
insufficient load capacity could be due to the original design or to deterioration. 

Table 7 shows structurally deficient bridges with sufficiency ratings of 100 percent or 
less. The locations of these bridges are also shown in Figure 9 Bridge Deficiency Map. 



35 



Structurally Deficient Bridges in Shallotte Urban Area 


Bridge # 


Facility - Feature 


Suffiency Rating 


TIP 


9 


NC 130 -Bear Branch 


4.0% 


B-4030 


15 


SR 1 164 - Calabash River 


15.0% 




16 


NC 21 1 - Branch of Big Swamp 


60.6% 




19 


US 17B- Shallotte River 


41.0% 




47 


NC 21 1 - Branch of Juniper Crk. 


18.2% 


B-4438 


62 


NC 21 1 - Royal Oak Swamp 


4.0% 


B-2110 


72 


NC 179 - Sauce Pan Creek 


7% 


B-4031 


81 


SR 1321 - Wet Ash Swamp 


9% 


B-2924 


87 


SR 1300 - Wet Ash Swamp 


37.6% 


B-2923 


92 


SR 1339 - Alligator Swamp 


46.0% 




100 


SR 1342 - Juniper Creek 


40.6% 


B-4439 


163 


SR 1349 - Mulberry Swamp 


24.9% 


B-4440 


207 


SR1191 - Shallotte River 


40.5% 




Total 


13 




8 



Table 7 Structurally Deficient Bridges 



36 




rtiage Concerns 

Shallotte Urban Area 
March 2001 



Legend 



ds (DOT 24k - no attributes) 
/US 17 

Hist. Struct-NR (Restricted-100k) 

Nat. Heritage Occurence Sites (Restricted- 100k ) 

Land & Water Consv. Fund (100k) 
Roads (100k TIGER w/ attributes) 
Municipal Boundaries (24k) 
Hydro - Major Water Bodies (100k) 
/ Hydro - Major Rivers/Streams (100k) 



Li ¥ \ 




FIGURE 3 



Structurally Deficient Bridges in Shallotte Urban Area 


Bridge # 


Facility - Feature 


Suffiency Rating 


TIP 


9 


NC 130 -Bear Branch 


4.0% 


B4030 


15 


SR 1 164 - Calabash River 


15.0% 




16 


NC 21 1 - Branch of Big Swamp 


60.6% 




19 


US 17B- Shallotte River 


41.0% 




47 


NC 21 1 - Branch of Juniper Crk. 


18.2% 


B-4438 


62 


NC 21 1 - Royal Oak Swamp 


4.0% 


B-2110 


72 


NC 179 - Sauce Pan Creek 


7% 


B-4031 


81 


SR 1321 - Wet Ash Swamp 


9% 


B-2924 


87 


SR 1300 - Wet Ash Swamp 


37.6% 


B-2923 


92 


SR 1339 - Alligator Swamp 


46.0% 




100 


SR 1342 - Juniper Creek 


40.6% 


B-4439 


163 


SR 1349 - Mulberry Swamp 


24.9% 


B-4440 


207 


SR 1191 -Shallotte River 


40.5% 




Total 


13 




8 



Table 7 Structurally Deficient Bridges 



36 




Hertiage Concerns 

Shallotte Urban Area 
March 2001 



Legend 



Roads (DOT 24k - no attributes) 
/S/US17 
# Hist. Struct -NR (Restricted-100k) 
-fr Nat. Heritage Occurence Sites (Restricted- 100k) 
Jig Land & Water Consv. Fund (100k) 
V Roads (100k TIGER w/ attributes) 
Municipal Boundaries (24k) 
Hydro - Major Water Bodies (100k) 
/\J Hydro - Major Rivers/Streams (100k) 



N 



W 




FIGURE 3 



8 Miles 




Water Quality 
Concerns 

Shallotte Urban Area 
March 2001 



Legend 



atl. Hwy. Sys. (Primary Roads) 

NC 

Roads (100k TIGER w/ attributes) 
Hydro - Major Rivers/Streams (100k 
Fish Nursery Areas (24k) 



■ HQW Zones (100k) 



NWI (poly-24k) 

Municipal Boundaries (24k) 

Hydro - Major Water Bodies (100k) 




FIGURE 4 




Water Quality 
Concerns 

Shallotte Urban Area 
March 2001 



Legend 

Natl. Hwy. Sys. (Primary Roads) 

A/us 

V NC 

Roads (100k TIGER w/ attributes) 
'/\/ Hydro - Major Rivers/Streams (100k 
Fish Nursery Areas (24k) 
H HQW Zones (100k) 

NWI (poly-24k) 
r] Municipal Boundaries (24k) 
"'] Hydro - Major Water Bodies (100k) 



N 



W 




FIGURE 4 



8 Miles 



\ ( 



^J\j\y^\°\ I ution Concerns 




Shallotte Urban Area 



March 2001 



LEGEND 



NPDES - Point Source Dischargers (24k) 

Superfund Pts. (Haz. Subs. Dispos. Sites) 
Superfund Areas (Haz. Subs. Dispos. Sites) 
Groundwater Incidents (100k) 

I Groundwater Recharge/Discharge Areas (100k) 

Air Quality Pollution Discharge Points (24k) 
ds (DOT 24k - no attributes) 

/US 17 

[/ Roads (100k TIGER w/ attributes) 
Municipal Boundaries (24k) 
Hydro - Major Water Bodies (100k) 



/ Hydro - Major Rivers/Streams (100k) 



\ s/ 

1 J^ 




4 




FIGURE 5 




Pollution Concerns 

Shallotte Urban Area 
March 2001 



LEGEND 



NPDES - Point Source Dischargers (24k) 
^ Superfund Pts. (Haz. Subs. Dispos. Sites) 
£jj Superfund Areas (Haz. Subs. Dispos. Sites) 
f§ Groundwater Incidents (100k) 
lijjj'lj] Groundwater Recharge/Discharge Areas (100k) 
■ Air Quality Pollution Discharge Points (24k) 
Roads (DOT 24k - no attributes) 
/\/US17 

/\/ Roads (100k TIGER w/ attributes) 
Municipal Boundaries (24k) 
Hydro - Major Water Bodies (100k) 
/\/ Hydro - Major Rivers/Streams (100k) 



N 



W 




8 Miles 



FIGURE 5 




1999 
apacity Deficiency Map 

Shallotte Urban Area 
2001 



Legend 
Nearing Capaci 
A/ Over Capacity 




FIGURE 6 




1999 
Capacity Deficiency Map 

Shallotte Urban Area 
2001 

Legend 
Nearing Capacity 
Af Over Capacity 



w 




Miles 



FIGURE 6 







2025 
Capacity Deficiency Map 

Shallotte Urban Area 



A/ 



Nearing Capacity 
Over Capacity 




FIGURE 7 




2025 
Capacity Deficiency Map 

Shallotte Urban Area 
2001 

Legend 
Nearing Capacity 
rv Over Capacity 



N 




s 



6 Miles 



FIGURE 7 




SHALLOTTE 

ANNUAL AVERAGE 
DAILY TRAFFIC MAP 



1999 
2025 



OF SHALLOTTE 
AND VICINITY 

BRUNSWICK COUNTY 

NORTH CAROLINA 

BY 



SWflJEWPe IWM N G «awCH 
m o oo a wnow ■«» nc 
u a wactmeht of nwtsroarAiioN 

FB3BIAL HKHWMT MMVMSffiATiON 



200Q 4000 4000 8000 10000 




Monti 22,2000 



FIGURE 8 



. 




3300 
12300 



Saa Brunswick County Thoroughfare Plan tor rural areas. 



SHALLOTTE 

ANNUAL AVERAGE 
DAILY TRAFFIC MAP 



AADT 2025 



TOWN OF SHALLOTTE 

AND VICINITY 

BRUNSWICK COUNTY 

NORTH CAROUNA 



IfMCWDB mwwo hwh 



FIGURE 8 



., 




BRIDGE DEFICIENCY MAP 

for 

SHALLOTTE URBAN AREA 



LEGEND 

FUNCTIONAL 06SOLEIE BRIDGES 
STOJCnONALLY DEFKB4T HODGES 



JANUARY 10,2001 



TOWN OF SHALLOTTE 
AND VICINITY 

BRUNSWICK COUNTY 

NORTH CAROLINA 



STA1BMDE PlAfMNG ■ANCH 
m ooonwnoN with the 

us. aertmrntt of thnrwohm 

ROBML HIGHWAY ADMMSTKAIrON 
WOO 4000 MOO 8000 10000 




Nfanfi 22.2000 



FIGURE 9 







/ X ' \ \i4oo aLi^ 






/ 


1305/ \ 1342 , \ ^^^ 




J»^- 






BRIDGE DEFICIENCY MAP 


Pv 


~~ \ 


for 


\ V 


V. - -L . _ ___ 




«> y^^ — r 


SHALLOTTE URBAN AREA 


-L b 


N. is/ 


T a-yt ~~ \^~^— 






N 




1 ' 1 -^2 \ ^#'535 




V 


\3sA 




. -■ / / .^^ ' xt -^-^ ; i«*«(xxf 






'"~~ It - 


/ '«*l ^^"^^AA^ .- •"" A 






J335 












/ ^^*^ /l!29 0^>^ ' V 


LEGEND 






iJ«/ ^z**^ . A» A ^^-~£> 










~"--^ I ' f ^f^^ ii 3 -^ J *= 


r^- r \«.v T 


HJNCnONAL OSSOICIE tUOGfS • 

snucnoNAUY dbkbit bmdges 








V / i a 1 ^^^ 


/ ^' v %•-. V 






^^ ^\^ —-'"". 


NA ' l 1363 | \ j-s^f > 


; VJ28 \ / 1178^ 




__^. 




hn^\-' \>w )ravK"^' s V i *-0» / i27o ,-- 1132/ -7 \ ^^ \ n 


JANUARY 10,2001 


— B 


"V ^A v ^ 


V^^^V^ ( rj ^ 








" | \>I3§° / 








s) ISgJ // 
^ 1 \ ^^ A 






• en. Sii ^ 


^^ ' ,__ 1316 V __v/l j 


•//A- 4^AA- I * / \ / B ■ . \ / V^TpAf^^A 1 ^ S «* 


. 


— ' \ s ( /A^A 


AA shaiwv, j|»/^ ,- — ' T/^_ \ 1 /uai \ 1/ 




.-— - 




^V^Nsi^i)))! # Ao AA- ,as3» jS~- v — VaA 1 " 

^1292 \ ^^5/'' J J x / )&- \1«\ iSSi 1868 V \ \ j< 

^997 \ <= ^%! \r^ 1 ■ T~ I \/i 1871_^S h iS2 l_US \j\~~ 




«■* 




Visa j 

V154/ 










A-^ — A~ A 5 !i w /** -f^A " / /— J ' , i^^JJ- I^A\ 




l 


\v& — ^^ 


U84 / 


1 ,47 / V— _-l isr/ /■- *** Af \ 




— ^ \ 1 iM9 J ^BrL ■** — T_ X 


TOWN OF SHALLOTTE 
AND VICINITY 


JfS* 


*i- 




^£— —A^AA, r 


-lAAw Q /^ JbP^ : - ; ~ 






"AIL 4tf \ 1 \ 


\ 


\o— *»-*>_7. ^^A 

\ **°* T — A 


f&, n '-, LA. )(f/Ji ■/>- 


'Si, T 1 -^ 


[" - 


£ 


JT. -y \ • — 1 _ ^^,^^^^t 


BRUNSWICK COUNTY 

NORM CAROLINA 


tLIiJ 


■—^^ — £-*— e- — - ■ -_^?-. 


jJm ;>?aa 4 


111 ill — Mii^^r^^ 


STAIEWnt IUMWG «AHCH 




\ ^sv^ \ U 










\ v^ \ -Ar 




ui omMnma or WMMBOiaM 








fBmMHOHWur MWMBIBMIOM 
moo «ooo 4000 no 10000 


•cdb ia tat 




T\tTT^\^ V^ 1 l ^~\-iM^^^^^£5^^&zp * 




htt% IM« 


!Z^" \S^ 


w\\vC.\ V "'is^^l^^^^^m^L— 




Merdi 33. MOO 


fc. *» r- 


^\^^^^^^^^w|jjjM^^^^^^ 




FIGURE 9 




^' ""• > ^^^J^^^jssrSJ* 5 ^!- 







., 



CHAPTER 4 
Travel Model Analysis 



Travel Model Analysis takes the existing highway system as it functions today and 
simulates it using the advanced computer software, TRANPLAN. The existing highway 
system is made of the road network, traffic on the network, and land use. Once the 
modeled system functions (or is calibrated) like the existing system; future projections 
are inputted to develop the future highway system. The model is designed to test 
different road networks. Effects of future traffic on various road networks are then 
studied. Transportation modeling is a tool to assist the engineer in testing land use and 
network alternatives. It is not a substitute for the experience or judgment of the engineer. 

Models are developed to (1) estimate trips produced (origins) and trips attracted 
(destinations) by traffic zones and (2) to estimate travel patterns between zones. Separate 
models are developed for the three basic types of trips: internal, internal- external, and 
through. Internal trips are defined as those trips which have both an origin and 
destination inside the planning area. An internal-external trip is a trip which has one 
end inside the planning area and the other outside. Through trips are defined as those 
trips which travel through the area and have both an origin and destination outside the 
study area. The validity of the models are tested by comparing the traffic volumes 
computed by the models to traffic volume counts taken on the existing road network. 

Present Travel 

Travel forecasting models were developed and calibrated for the area using 1999 
socio-economic data and traffic counts. The Town of Shallotte was responsible for 
collecting the socio-economic inventory. Approximately 12 volunteers from the 
Briarwood Subdivision Women's Golf Club collected the data. The techniques employed 
are in accordance with North Carolina's Urban Travel Forecasting Procedures. 

The planning area increased since the last thoroughfare plan in 1994. The 1994 
Thoroughfare Plan is shown in Figure 10. The planning area is approximately 55.7 
square miles and includes the entire old planning area. The new planning area has 69 
zones. The increase covers areas that now use Shallotte for economic purposes. This 
includes the majority of the Shallotte Township and parts of Supply, Exum, and Holden 
Beach Townships. 

Trip Generation 

Two surveys obtained the socio-economic data. The surveys were the housing and 
employment survey. The Town of Shallotte provided staff to collect the housing and 
employment data. Five main categories were used in this study as shown in Appendix C 
Travel Model Data. Also included in the housing table were trucks and commercial 
automobiles garaged at employer centers. The employment survey consists of total 
employment at establishments and the types of employment. The table showing the 

51 



employment totals is also in Appendix C Travel Model Data. There are no taxis in the 
urban area. 

A traffic survey for Shallotte was also taken. The Traffic Survey Unit of the Statewide 
Planning Branch completed the survey. The traffic survey consists of 1997 and 1999 
average daily and hourly traffic counts. Traffic counts were taken at roads that crossed 
screenlines, stations along the planning boundary, and other specific locations for model 
calibration purposes as shown in Figure 12 Traffic Count Station Map. Traffic counts 
were taken after the summer season. Shallotte was a unique model. Travel Model 
Analysis was extracted from the Brunswick County Model. Stations, centroids, and links 
were added to create the Shallotte model The 1999 Existing Street Network is shown in 
Figure 13. 

Trip Productions 

Average weekday trip productions were estimated on a zonal basis in three categories: 
(1) trips produced by dwelling units, (2) trips produced by commercially used vehicles, 
and (3) trips produced by taxis. Dwelling unit trip generation rates by housing condition 
were estimated. Likewise, 6.7 trips per commercially owned vehicle and 40 trips per taxi 
would be used if taxis were available. All rates were adjusted for the calibration of the 
model as determined by screenline checks. Specifically, the generation rates in the below 
average and poor housing categories were adjusted. These rates needed to be decreased 
to compensate for the large number of dwelling units in these categories. Usually there 
should be more average dwelling units than below average dwelling units. The Shallotte 
Urban Area has a large number of mobile homes due to the area being a beach 
community. 

An important part of the model calibrations are screenlines. A screenline is an imaginary 
line drawn across a part or the entire planning area. Counts are taken at every street that 
crosses this line and the total volume of traffic is determined. This volume can then be 
compared to a similar volume obtained from the synthetic modeling process. This 
accuracy check will indicate if the total amount of travel on the network is correct. Final 
model calibration reflected the following screenline accuracy checks: 

(1) Screenline A - 101% (north-south screenline following Shallotte River.) 

(2) Screenline B - 1 18% (east-west screenline following creeks and streams) 

Because of the geographic nature of the Shallotte Urban Area, Screenline B is actually 
91%. There were nine crossings of Screenline B. Out of the nine crossings five dead end 
at the Shallotte River or loop back into itself. 

The total trips generated by dwelling units, commercial vehicles, and taxis produce total 
internally generated trips. They were adjusted to account for trips made by vehicles 
garaged inside the planning area but with destinations outside the planning area. 



52 



The adjusted internal travel was separated into three purposes: home-base work (HBW) 
23%, other home-based (OHB) 55%, and non home-based (NHB) trips 22%. In addition 
are secondary non home-based trips. These are internally generated trips made by 
vehicles garaged outside the planning area. They are added to the internally produced non 
home-based trips and distributed to each zone based on each zone's relative attractiveness 
as determined by the internal regression equation. Zonal productions are developed 
automatically in a program developed by the NCDOT. This program is called the 
Internal Data Summary. 

Secondary NHB Trip Equation: 

Secondary NHB Trips = 0.4 x (Total Ext-Int Trips . Ext-Int Trips Garaged Inside 

Planning Area) 

The Multiple Regression Equations used: 

HBW: Trip Attractions = Total Employment for each zone 
OHB: Y = (0.5)Xi +(1 .83)X 2 +(8.36)X 3 +(2.6)X4 +(2.55)X 5 +(0.5)X i0 
NHB: Y = (1.0)X 1 +(1.83)X2+(8.36)X 3 +(2.6)X4-K2.55)X5+(0.1)X 1 o 
E-I: Y = (1.5)Xi -K1.83)X 2 +(8.36)X3+(2.6)X4+(2.55)X5+(1.5)X 10 

Where, Y = Attraction Factor 

Xi = Industrial X4 = Office 

X 2 = Other Retail X 5 = Service 

X3 = Highway Retail X10 = Dwelling Unit 

Appendix C Travel Model Data shows the IDS calculations for 1999 and 2025, NHB 
Secondary Calculations, and Regression Equations. 

Trip Attractions 

The HBW attraction factors are total employment within each zone. Factors for OHB, 
NHB, and external-internal (E-I) purposes were developed using the multiple regression 
equation "borrowed" other small urban areas. The regression analysis uses zonal 
employment and housing as the independent variables and computes an estimate of trips 
attracted as the dependent variable. Total attractions are balanced to equal total 
productions by purpose. The balanced trip attractions from this analysis are shown the 
IDS Calculations. 

External and Through Trips 

Traffic counts were taken at all major roads at the entrance of the planning area. The 
1999 external-internal trips were distributed to internal zones by use of the gravity model 
program using trip productions at the stations, which are actual ground counts; attraction 
factors resulting from the multiple regression analysis; development trends; and the 
Fratar Trip balancing program. The total external-internal trip productions were located 
at the external stations. This analysis estimated that there were 80,160 external-internal 
trips and 7,329 through trip crossings for and average weekday in 1999. The internal 
zones attracted these trips based on the regression equations. 

53 



Trip Distribution 

The gravity model was used to distribute the internal trips (HBW, OHB, & NHB) and the 
E-I travel while the through travel was assigned directly to the road network on a 
minimum path basis. The friction factors by trip purpose as required by the gravity model 
were from the 1991 Hendersonville Study. (North Carolina has gained experience, since 
the sixties, in travel modeling that with confidence travel parameters from similar urban 
area databases can be borrowed and calibrated to a new urban area.) The friction factors 
are given in Appendix C Travel Model Data. The synthetic method of developing 
travel patterns was checked by comparing the assignment of the travel on the existing 
highway system to actual ground counts at established locations. The results of the 
accuracy checks (mentioned earlier as screenline checks) were felt to be within 
acceptable limits for the purpose of this study. 

Future Travel 

After travel forecast models have been calibrated using the All or Nothing loading. 
Travel is adequately duplicated. Design year travel estimates are produced through the 
input of design year data on population and employment. The trip distribution models 
are sensitive to changes in the road network and variation will occur in the travel patterns 
as alternative road networks are tested. 

The future year 2025 travel was developed using the same techniques employed in 
modeling the 1999 travel. The Thoroughfare Planning Committee and NCDOT 
cooperatively developed the probable growth factors. The Town Administrator projected 
the necessary housing and employment data. (See the Socio-economic Data in Appendix 
C Travel Model Data). 

The generation rates were developed using an equation that takes into consideration 
vehicle ownership trends, persons per household trends, and a vehicle usage factor. (See 
Appendix C.) The generation rates for commercially owned vehicles were held constant 
at 6.7 trips per vehicle. The commercially owned vehicles were estimated on a zonal 
basis using employment growth. 

The attraction factors were developed and calibrated using 1999 data and 2025 housing 
and employment data. The secondary NHB trips were developed using the 1999 ratio of 
secondary NHB trips per external-internal crossings by vehicles garaged outside the 
planning area times the estimated 2025 external-internal crossings by vehicles garaged 
outside the planning area. The 2025 secondary NHB trips were estimated at 29,562. 

The 2025 productions for HBW, OHB, NHB purposes were estimated using the same 
IDS program used for 1999. A growth rate analysis using historic travel trends and 
development potential was used to estimate traffic volumes at each external station for 
2025. These volumes were converted to E-I and through trips. Through trips were 
distributed using the Fratar trip end balancing program. The HBW, OHB, NHB, and E-I 
trips were distributed using the same gravity model procedures employed in the base 
year. 



54 



Trip Distribution 

The gravity model was used to distribute the internal trips (HBW, OHB, & NHB) and the 
E-I travel while the through travel was assigned directly to the road network on a 
minimum path basis. The friction factors by trip purpose as required by the gravity model 
were from the 1991 Hendersonville Study. (North Carolina has gained experience, since 
the sixties, in travel modeling that with confidence travel parameters from similar urban 
area databases can be borrowed and calibrated to a new urban area.) The friction factors 
are given in Appendix C Travel Model Data. The synthetic method of developing 
travel patterns was checked by comparing the assignment of the travel on the existing 
highway system to actual ground counts at established locations. The results of the 
accuracy checks (mentioned earlier as screenline checks) were felt to be within 
acceptable limits for the purpose of this study. 

Future Travel 

After travel forecast models have been calibrated using the All or Nothing loading. 
Travel is adequately duplicated. Design year travel estimates are produced through the 
input of design year data on population and employment. The trip distribution models 
are sensitive to changes in the road network and variation will occur in the travel patterns 
as alternative road networks are tested. 

The future year 2025 travel was developed using the same techniques employed in 
modeling the 1999 travel. The Thoroughfare Planning Committee and NCDOT 
cooperatively developed the probable growth factors. The Town Administrator projected 
the necessary housing and employment data. (See the Socio-economic Data in Appendix 
C Travel Model Data). 

The generation rates were developed using an equation that takes into consideration 
vehicle ownership trends, persons per household trends, and a vehicle usage factor. (See 
Appendix C.) The generation rates for commercially owned vehicles were held constant 
at 6.7 trips per vehicle. The commercially owned vehicles were estimated on a zonal 
basis using employment growth. 

The attraction factors were developed and calibrated using 1999 data and 2025 housing 
and employment data. The secondary NHB trips were developed using the 1999 ratio of 
secondary NHB trips per external-internal crossings by vehicles garaged outside the 
planning area times the estimated 2025 external-internal crossings by vehicles garaged 
outside the planning area. The 2025 secondary NHB trips were estimated at 29,562. 

The 2025 productions for HBW, OHB, NHB purposes were estimated using the same 
IDS program used for 1999. A growth rate analysis using historic travel trends and 
development potential was used to estimate traffic volumes at each external station for 
2025. These volumes were converted to E-I and through trips. Through trips were 
distributed using the Fratar trip end balancing program The HBW, OHB, NHB, and E-I 
trips were distributed using the same gravity model procedures employed in the base 
year. 



54 




Thoroughfare Plan for the 

Town of Shallotte and Vicinity 

Brunswick County, North Carolina 



(including wetland areas) 
November 8, 1994 



Adopted by: 

Shallotte _ 



11-16-94 



Recommended by 

Statewide Planning Brandt 1-20-95 



NC Dept of Transport 



2-3-95 



MAJOR THOROUGHFARE 
MINOR THOROUGHFARE 



FIGURE 10 




SHALLOTTE ZONE MAP 



LEGEND 



ZONE NUMBER 
ZONE UNE 
SCREEN LINE 
MAB UNE 




MMM99C 



27 



TOWN OF SHALLOTTE 
AND VICINITY 

BRUNSWICK COUNTY 

NORTH CAROLINA 



I H H h bib: 



FIGURE 11 



., 




HOUS9) BEACH 



SHALLOTTE ZONE MAP 



LEGEND 



ZONE NUMBER 
ZONE LINE 
SCREEN LINE 

MAS LINE 



27 



■ V "" !"■■■!!.': 



TOWN OF SHALLOTTE 
AND VICINITY 

BRUNSWICK COUNTY 



HOKIH CAROLINA 



i M h B B B 



FIGURE 11 




TRAFFIC COUNT LOCATIONS 



LEGEND 

TRAFFIC COUNT STATIONS 

DAILY <© 

HOURLY A 

CLASS ■ 

JM4B JUNE imffiBTiiailB 

TRAFFIC COUNT STATION # 2« 




MAY 1998 



TOWN OF SHALLOTTE 
AND VICINITY 

BRUNSWICK COUNTY 

NOKIH CAROLINA 



ii i«in » i w ii n um i 







FIGURE 12 



I^^^^^H 




HOtDeJ BEACH 



TRAFFIC COUNT LOCATIONS 



LEGEND 

TRAFFIC COUNT STATIONS 

DAILY O 

HOURLY A. 

CLASS i" 
MAB LINE 

TRAFFIC COUNT STATION # J* 



TOWN OF SHALLOTTE 
AND VICINITY 

BRUNSWICK COUNTY 

NOHTH CAKXINA 



I M M H H M 



FIGURE 12 




99 Existing Highway 
Base Network 

Shallotte Urban Area 
March 2001 

Legend 

otte's Highway System 
US Routes 

NO Routes 

/SR Routes 



orts / Substations 

| Airport 

fie Count Stations (24k) 

Unknown 

Low 

Medium 

High 

Municipal Boundaries (24k) 

Hydro - Major Water Bodies (100k) 
/ Hydro - Major Rivers/Streams (100k) 

Hydro - Rivers/Streams (100k) 




FIGURE 13 



■^^■^^■H 




1999 Existing Highway 
Base Network 

Shallotte Urban Area 
March 2001 



Legend 

Shallotte's Highway System 

y\f us Routes 

VCfuC Routes 
y^SR Routes 

"i 
/ Airports / Substations 
U Airport 
Traffic Count Stations (24k) 
x Unknown 
Low 
Medium 
. High 
| Municipal Boundaries (24k) 
Hydro - Major Water Bodies (100k) 
v /\/ Hydro - Major Rivers/Streams (100k) 
Hydro - Rivers/Streams (100k) 



N 



W 




8 Miles 



FIGURE 13 



Chapter 5 
Bicycle and Pedestrian Elements 



Thoroughfare plans have been a part of long range planning in North Carolina since the 
1960's. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) has 
established that urban areas should also plan for alternative modes. The bicycle and 
pedestrian plan in this report should be used to assist the local areas in the development 
of a comprehensive bicycle and pedestrian systems." 

Goals 

The goals of the bicycle and pedestrian elements were to: 

♦ Create alternative forms of transportation 

♦ Connect community parks 

♦ Connect shopping areas 

♦ Connect education sites 

♦ Provide exercise for area citizens 

♦ Reduce transportation related energy use 

♦ Improve public health 

Collect & Analyze Data 

The Town of Shallotte does not have any bike lanes and there are only two short sections 
of sidewalks. Sidewalks are provided in the residential areas along Village Road. There 
are no sidewalks along Main Street south of Village Road. Sidewalks are along the east 
side of Main Street continuing along both sides of the Shallotte River Bridge to 
approximately 400 feet north of Henson Street. 

In analyzing a system for the bicycle and pedestrian elements, several items were taken 
into consideration. A search for existing plans was sought. There were no sidewalk 
plans, but there were two current bicycle plans. NCDOT Division of Bicycle and 
Pedestrian Transportation produced the "Bicycling Highways" Ports of Call and 
Brunswick County's 2001 Proposed Bicycle Plan. The Shallotte Bicycle Plan 
incorporates both of these plans. 

Existing and future land use plans were reviewed. They help to determine likely routes 
for bicyclists and pedestrians. Also any evidence of worn paths due to bicycle and 
pedestrian use were checked in a field survey. 

Plan Development 

In the plan development of the bicycle and pedestrian plans specific routes were selected. 
A list of problems and needs also were considered. Problems and needs considered were 
usage, directness of route, accessibility, connectivity, and safety. 



63 



Sidewalk Routes 


Route 










Destination 


From 


To 


Direction 


Miles 


Shallotte District Park 


US 17 Business© Park 


Existing Route ©Village Rd. 


1 N 


0.3 


Shallotte Middle School 


Middle School 


Copas Road and back to 
Existing Route ©Village Rd. 


1 N 


0.1 


Shallotte District Park 


US 17 Business® Park 


Shopping Areas 


2 


0.8 


Sellers Road 


US 17 Business Split 


Existing Route ©Village Rd. 


2 


0.7 


South Brunswick High Sch. 


NC 130 ©School 


Existing Route ©Village Rd. 


1 N 


1.8 


Briarwood Subdivision (Exist) 


NC 179 ©Subdivision 


Main Street 


1S 


2.4 


Main Street (Exist) 


Village Road 


Henson Street 


2 


1.0 


Smith Street 


Northern CBD Loop 


Main Street 


2 


1.0 


Mulberry Road 


Northern CBD Loop 


Main Street 


1 N 


1.0 


Total Mileage 








9.1 


1 or 2: One Side or Both Sides of Street 


N or S: North or South Side of Street 





Table 8 Sidewalk Routes 



Bicycle Routes 


Route 








Destination 


From 


To 


Miles 


Waccamaw District Park 


NC130© Park 


Ports of Call Bike Route 


11.0 


Shallotte District Park 


US 17 Business© Park 


Ports of Call Bike Route 


0.3 


Lockwood Folly District Park 


NC 211© Park 


Ports of Call Bike Route 


0.3 


Shallotte Middle School 


Middle School 


Copas Road and back to 


0.1 






the Ports of Call Route 




Shallotte District Park 


US 17 Business© Park 


Shopping Areas 


0.8 


Ports of Call Bicycle Route (Exist) 


runs through the entire planning area 


13.0 


Total Mileage 






25.5 



Table 9 Bicycle Routes 



64 



X 




Proposed Sidewalks 

Shallotte Urban Area 
2001 



Legend 

Existing Sidewalk 
Both Sides 

Existing Sidewalk 
One Side 

Proposed Sidewalk 
Both Sides 

Proposed Sidewalk 
One Side 



• • • 



A/ 



• * 
#• • 

• • • 



A/ 



Parks 



Schools 



r 



Shopping Center 




FIGURE 14 



Sidewalk Routes 


Route 










Destination 


From 


To 


Direction 


Miles 


Shallotte District Park 


US 17 Business© Park 


Existing Route ©Village Rd. 


1 N 


0.3 


Shallotte Middle School 


Middle School 


Copas Road and back to 
Existing Route ©Village Rd. 


1 N 


0.1 


Shallotte District Park 


US 17 Business© Park 


Shopping Areas 


2 


0.8 


Sellers Road 


US 17 Business Split 


Existing Route ©Village Rd. 


2 


0.7 


South Brunswick High Sch. 


NC 130 ©School 


Existing Route ©Village Rd. 


1 N 


1.8 


Briarwood Subdivision (Exist) 


NC 179 ©Subdivision 


Main Street 


1S 


2.4 


Main Street (Exist) 


Village Road 


Henson Street 


2 


1.0 


Smith Street 


Northern CBD Loop 


Main Street 


2 


1.0 


Mulberry Road 


Northern CBD Loop 


Main Street 


1 N 


1.0 


Total Mileage 








9.1 


1 or 2: One Side or Both Sides of Street 


N or S: North or South Side of Street 





Table 8 Sidewalk Routes 



Bicycle Routes 


Route 








Destination 


From 


To 


Miles 


Waccamaw District Park 


NC 130 ©Park 


Ports of Call Bike Route 


11.0 


Shallotte District Park 


US 17 Business© Park 


Ports of Call Bike Route 


0.3 


Lockwood Folly District Park 


NC 211© Park 


Ports of Call Bike Route 


0.3 


Shallotte Middle School 


Middle School 


Copas Road and back to 
the Ports of Call Route 


0.1 


Shallotte District Park 


US 17 Business© Park 


Shopping Areas 


0.8 


Ports of Call Bicycle Route (Exist) 


runs through the entire planning area 


13.0 


Total Mileage 






25.5 



Table 9 Bicycle Routes 



64 



m ^^ m ^^ m ^^— m ^^^ m 




Proposed Sidewalks 

Shallotte Urban Area 
2001 



Legend 

Existing Sidewalk 
Both Sides 

A/ Existing Sidewalk 
' v One Side 

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•' " Both Sides 

A / Proposed Sidewalk 
One Side 



Parks 



Schools 



Shopping Center 



\Y 




4 Miles 



FIGURE 14 



s_ 




Proposed Bike Routes 

Shallotte Urban Area 
2001 



/V 



7~^ — / / 



• « 
• • • 



Legend 



Shallotte's 
Proposed Bike Routes 

Brunswick County 
Proposed Bike Routes 

Ports of Call 

NCDOT "Bicycling Highways" 

Existing Route 



Parks 



Schools 



Shopping Center 




FIGURE 15 



■■^■^■■^^^^^^^^^M 




Proposed Bike Routes 

Shallotte Urban Area 
2001 



Legend 

» f Shallotte's 

/ 4 Proposed Bike Routes 

^ / Brunswick County 
/ / Proposed Bike Routes 

, , Ports of Call 

r*J NCDOT "Bicycling Highways" 
Existing Route 



Parks 



Schools 



Shopping Center 



W 




8 Miles 



FIGURE 15 



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— ^-— B^^— . 



Appendix B Typical Cross Sections 



r 



^■■■MM^lH 



TYPICAL THOROUGHFARE CROSS SECTIONS 



Cross section requirements for thoroughfares vary according to the desired capacity and 
level of service to be provided. Universal standards in the design of thoroughfares are not 
practical. Each street section must be individually analyzed and its cross section 
requirements determined on the basis of amount and type of projected traffic, existing 
capacity, desired level of service, and available right-of-way. 

Typical cross section recommendations are shown in figures following this section. 
These cross sections are typical for facilities on new location and where right-of-way 
constraints are not critical. For widening projects and urban projects with limited right- 
of-way, special cross sections should be developed that meet the needs of the project. 

Recommended typical cross sections for thoroughfares were derived on the basis of 
projected traffic, existing capacities, desirable levels of service, and available right- of- 
way. The recommended typical cross sections for the thoroughfares are given at the end 
of this section. 

On all existing and proposed major thoroughfares delineated on the thoroughfare plan, 
adequate right-of-way should be protected or acquired for the ultimate cross sections. 
Ultimate desirable cross sections for each of the thoroughfares are listed in the this 
appendix. Recommendations for "ultimate" cross sections are provided for (1) 
thoroughfares which may require widening after the current planning period; (2) for 
thoroughfares which are borderline adequate and accelerated traffic growth could render 
them deficient; and (3) for thoroughfares where an urban curb and gutter cross section 
may be locally desirable because of urban development or redevelopment. 

Recommended design standards relating to maximum and min imum grades, minimum 
sight distances, maximum degree of curve and related super elevation, and other 
considerations for thoroughfares are given in the this appendix. This Appendix gives 
definitions and design standards recommended for inclusion in subdivision regulations. 

Cross sections "A" and "L" is typical for controlled access freeways. The 14 m (46 ft) 
grassed median is the minimum desirable median width, but there could be some 
variation from this depending upon design considerations. Right-of-way requirements 
would typically vary upward from 70 m (228 ft) depending upon cut and fill 
requirements. 



Cross section "B", seven lane curb and gutter, should not be used for new projects. 
When the conditions warrant six lanes, cross section "D" should be recommended. 
Cross section "B" should be used only in special situations such as when widening from 
a five lane section and right-of-way is limited. Even in these situations, consideration 
should be given to converting the center turn lane to a median so that cross section "D" 
is the final cross section. 

Cross section "C", five lane curb and gutter, is typical for major thoroughfares where 
frequent left turns are anticipated as a result of abutting development or frequent street 
intersections. 

Cross sections "D", "E", and "M" are used on major thoroughfares where left turns 
and intersecting streets are not as frequent. Left turns would be restricted to a few 
selected intersections. The 4.9 m (16 ft) median is the minimum recommended for an 
urban boulevard type cross section. In most instances, monolithic construction should be 
utilized due to greater cost effectiveness, ease and speed of placement, and reduced future 
maintenance requirements. In special cases, grassed or landscaped medians may be used 
in urban areas. However, these types of medians result in greatly increased maintenance 
costs and an increased danger to maintenance personnel. Non-monolithic medians should 
only be recommended when the above concerns are addressed. 

Cross section "F" is recommended for urban boulevards or parkways to enhance the 
urban environment and to improve the compatibility of major thoroughfares with 
residential areas. A minimum median width of 7.3 m (24 ft) is recommended with 9.1 m 
(30 ft) being desirable. 

Typical cross section "G" is recommended for major thoroughfares where projected 
travel indicates a need for four travel lanes but traffic is not excessively high, left turning 
movements are light, and right-of-way is restricted. An additional left turn lane would 
probably be required at major intersections. This cross section should be used only if the 
above criteria is met. If right-of-way is not restricted, future strip development could take 
place and the inner lanes could become de facto left turn lanes. 

In urban environments, thoroughfares which are proposed to function as one-way traffic 
carriers would typically require cross section "H". Cross sections "I" and "J" are 
usually recommended for urban minor thoroughfares since these facilities usually serve 
both land service and traffic service functions. Cross section "I" would be used on 
those minor thoroughfares where parking on both sides is needed as a result of more 
intense development. 



Cross section "K" is used in rural areas or for staged construction of a wider multi-lane 
cross section. On some thoroughfares, projected traffic volumes may indicate that two 
travel lanes will adequately serve travel for a considerable period of time. For areas that 
are growing and future widening will be necessary, the full right-of-way of 30 m (100 ft) 
should be required. In some instances, local ordinances may not allow the full 30 m (100 
ft). In those cases, 21m (70 ft) should be preserved with the understanding that the full 
30 m (100 ft) will be preserved by use of building setbacks and future street line 
ordinances. 

The urban curb and gutter cross sections all illustrate the sidewalk adjacent to the curb 
with a buffer or utility strip between the sidewalk and the minimum right-of-way line. 
This permits adequate setback for utility poles. If it is desired to move the sidewalk 
farther away from the street to provide additional separation for pedestrians or for 
aesthetic reasons, additional right-of-way must be provided to insure adequate setback for 
utility poles. 

The right-of-ways shown for the typical cross sections are the minimum rights-of-way 
required to contain the street, sidewalks, utilities, and drainage facilities. Cut and fill 
requirements may require either additional right-of-way or construction easements. 
Obtaining construction easements is becoming the more common practice for urban 
thoroughfare construction. 

If there is sufficient bicycle travel along the thoroughfare to justify a bicycle lane or 
bikeway, additional right-of-way may be required to contain the bicycle facilities. The 
North Carolina Bicycle Facilities Planning and Design Guidelines should be consulted 
for design standards for bicycle facilities. Cross sections N, O, and P are typically used 
to accommodate bicycle travel. 









■■ 



J 



TYPICAL THOROUGHFARE CROSS SECTIONS 



_7Bm- 
228' 



46' MINIMUM 
MEDIAN 



i 3.6m 

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FOUR LANES DIVIDED WITH MEDIAN - FREEWAY 



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TYPICAL THOROUGHFARE CROSS SECTIONS 



E. 



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UTILITY 




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VARIABLE 



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M. 







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EIGHT LANES DIVIOED WITH RAISED MEDIAN - CURB 4 GUTTER 

TYPICAL THOROUGHFARE CROSS SECTIONS 
FOR ACCOMMODATING BICYCLES 



N. 




















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STANDARD INSIDE LANES & WIDENED CURB LANES 



Appendix C Travel Model Data 







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IPS CALCULATIONS 



1999 Shallotte Base Year IDS Input 
Date of run # October 20, 1999 



file 



***WARNING*** Your average generation rate of 6.59 seems low. 
Average should be between 7-8. PLEASE CHECK. 

***WARNING*** Your emp/pop ratio of 0.35 is out of range, 
Allowable Ranges for Employee/ Population Ratio 
EMP/POP INT OF TOTAL 

40-50% 80-85% 

50-60% 85-90% 



PLEASE CHECK. 



TRIP STATISTICS 

TRIPS PRODUCED BY THE HOUSING UNITS = 30620 

INTERNAL TRIPS = 



INTERNAL OF TOTAL = 82.0% 

HBW OF INTERNAL = 23.0% 

HBO OF INTERNAL = 55.0% 

NHB OF INTERNAL = 22.0% 



25108 



HBW TRIPS = 5775 
HBO TRIPS = 13809 
NHB TRIPS = 5524 



COMM VEH TRIPS = 3759 INTERNAL = 3082 

TRIPS PRODUCED BY EXTERNAL STATIONS = 72 370 
NHB SECONDARY TRIPS = 2 6928 

AVERAGE DU GENERATION RATE = 6.59 Trips/DU 

(Only include the 5 standard housing classes) 

EMPLOYEE/ POPULATION RATIO = 0.35 
(Total Employees in XI - X8 ) 

REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS 



XI 


X2 


X3 


X4 


X5 


X6 


X7 


X8 


X9 


XI 


XI 1 


DU S 


CONST 


HBW 1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


HBO 0.50 


1.83 


8.36 


2.60 


2.55 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.50 


0.00 


NHB 1.00 


1.83 


8.36 


2.60 


2.55 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.10 


0.00 


EX-IN 1.50 


1.83 


8.36 


2.60 


2.55 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


1.50 


0.00 



IDS Base Year Calculations 



Page 1 



., 



10$ CALCULATIONS 



2025 Shallotte IDS Input file 

TRIP STATISTICS 

TRIPS PRODUCED BY THE HOUSING UNITS = 95 680 

INTERNAL OF TOTAL = 82.0% INTERNAL TRIPS = 78458 

HBW OF INTERNAL = 23.0% HBW TRIPS = 18045 

HBO OF INTERNAL = 55.0% HBO TRIPS = 43152 

NHB OF INTERNAL = 22.0% NHB TRIPS = 17261 

COMM VEH TRIPS = 13852 INTERNAL = 11359 

TRIPS PRODUCED BY EXTERNAL STATIONS = 151141 
NHB SECONDARY TRIPS = 52 570 

AVERAGE DU GENERATION RATE = 8.00 Trips /DU 

(Only include the 5 standard housing classes) 

EMPLOYEE/ POPULATION RATIO = 0.40 
(Total Employees in XI - X8 ) 

REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS 





XI 


X2 


X3 


X4 


X5 


X6 


X7 


X8 


X9 


X10 


Xll 


DU S 


CONST 


HBW 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


HBO 


0.50 


1.83 


8.36 


2.60 


2.55 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.50 


0.00 


NHB 


1.00 


1.83 


8.36 


2.60 


2.55 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.10 


0.00 


EX- IN 


1.50 


1.83 


8.36 


2.60 


2.55 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


1.50 


0.00 



IDS 2025 Year Calculations Page 2 



. 



Non Home Based Secondary Trips 
Calculation Tables 



CALCULATION OF NON-HOME BASED SECONDARY TRIPS 










THOROUGHFARE PLAN STUDY FOR: 

INPUT FILE NAME: 
DATE: 


SHALLOTTE, NC 


ids/Base ids/calc.sha 


1999 Base Year Data 


ASSUMPTION: NHB2 WAS ASSUMED TO BE ZERO IN INITIAL IDS RUN. 




Trips produced by housing units 


30620 




Commercial vehicle trips 


3059 


Total Internally Generated Trips (1) 


33679 


% of trips remaining within the planning area 


0.82 


Trips that remain within planning area (l-l) 


27617 


Internal to External Trips (l-E) 


6062 


Total External - Internal Trips (from IDS) 


72370 


External to Internal Trips (E-l) 


66308 


Factor (ranges from 0.4 to 0.7, depending 
on opportunities to make extra trips) 


0.4 


Trips within planning area that 
originated from outside the planning 


26523 







CALCULATION OF NON-HOME BASED SECONDARY TRIPS 










THOROUGHFARE PLAN STUDY FOR: 

INPUT FILE NAME: 
DATE: 


SHALLOTTE, NC 


ids/2025 ids/calc.sha 


2025 Future Year Data 


ASSUMPTION: NHB2 WAS ASSUMED TO BE ZERO IN INITIAL IDS RUN. 




Trips produced by housing units 


95680 




Commercial vehicle trips 


13852 


Total Internally Generated Trips (I) 


109532 


% of trips remaining within the planning area 


0.82 


Trips that remain within planning area (l-l) 


89816 


Internal to External Trips (l-E) 


19716 


Total External - Internal Trips (from IDS) 


151141 


External to Internal Trips (E-l) 


131425 


Factor (ranges from 0.4 to 0.7, depending 
on opportunities to make extra trips) 


0.4 


Trips within planning area that 
originated from outside the planning 


52570 







Friction Factors for the Shal 


otte Urban Area 


TIME (min.) 


HBW 


HBO 


OHB 


EX-INT 


1 


38000 


36000 


22000 


30000 


2 


42558 


40293 


27189 


42000 


3 


28538 


27616 


20016 


26007 


4 


20272 


19911 


15403 


18001 


5 


15183 


15041 


12345 


13500 


6 


11935 


11853 


10268 


9500 


7 


9801 


9704 


8831 


6600 


8 


8370 


8220 


7825 


4800 


9 


7399 


7173 


7117 


3500 


10 


6739 


6422 


6622 


2938 


11 


6295 


5875 


6279 


1169 


12 


6003 


5468 


5845 


1002 


13 


5817 


5156 


5490 


920 


14 


5701 


4906 


4884 


857 


15 


5627 


4690 


4407 


735 


16 


5565 


4486 


4035 


547 


17 


5491 


4276 


3649 


451 


18 


5379 


4044 


3230 


390 


19 


5209 


3779 


2861 


320 


20 


4963 


3475 


2628 


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CO 






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o 








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CM 


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in 

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8. 



C* 

3 
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in 

CM 

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cn 
cn 
cn 






I^MB 



• 



Shallotte Urban Area 



APT Trendline Analysis 







SR1130 




Year 


N. of SR 1125 




1987 


1400 




1995 


2400 




1997 


2700 




1999 


3700 




2025 


7731 


growth rate; n = 


26 


2.77% 


growth rate to be used 3% = 


7979 



SR 1130 a North of SR 1125 



10000 

8000 

H 6000 
Q 

< 4000 

2000 




:"'?;."--'- ' 






--t?« ' ^ ' ^00*' 000000 '- 


')^-^--''^k::'^>^"^^0*'<^^ : -< r i ':^ ■.'■:■-•'■■: ? • 


^ 


* 


~\j = 169.8795x - 336274.6988 



1980 1990 2000 2010 

Year 



2020 



2030 





SR1163 




Year 


W. of NC 904 




1988 


100 


*dirt not included 


1994 


3000 




1996 


3900 


/ 


1998 


4400 




2025 


13917 




growth rate; n = 27 


4.36% 




growth rate to be used 3% = 


9774 





SR1160@WestofNC904 



Q 

< 



15000 

10000 

5000 



,y = 350.0000X - 694833.3333 



1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 

Year 



Shallotte Urban Area 



APT Trendline Analysis 

NC211 

Year County line W. ofSR1500 Dosher Cutoff 

1988 1000 3700 11600 

1994 1200 5500 12500 

1998 1700 6600 13000 

1999 - 7300 15000 



growth 
growth 


ra 
ra 


2025 
te; n = 26 
te to be used 3% 


3425 15234 

2.63% 2.87% 

3666 15743 


20441 
1.20% 
32349 






4000 




NC211 








H 
, O 

; < 

I 


3500 
3000 
2500 
2000 
1500 
1000 
500 
n 


.i. -i._- '-."<■:- 


'""'XC"S;*T> : r : . '■ "-" "*■' ■ ' L : -'''- ,; ""*;" ; "*: t : '«".">>* . ' :-■'.. ' >•/:■ -. 








^-^ 00< '' 






■'"< : ;~ -\". $- ■ ^^^~ 0g ^»< 00r ^'' ■ ■ 






y~k:-^ '^'y^^00^^^-±:. >■-'■-■ '■-■'■';'■%. 






: 4"' .'..:.-.> ■■^::_±0><^~-f^ff::.x:, ..•-■:: ■' • 






~* -^-^g^f^ ;- /;;".;, 






..-■'. 










% iy = 67. 1 053x - 1 32463. 1 579 








i 


19 


30 


1990 2000 2010 2020 
Year 


2030 
















16000 




NC211 ©West of SR 1500 




i 




a 
< 


14000 

12000 

10000 

8000 

6000 

4000 

2000 



1 


.'•-■;: k -r ,••■:•'-'- ] '-.^_^00^ : -\: 


i 
j 

! 




' ' ' : '^>* * '^ 




■}-_- _ . ! _-,, -■■-.—y-J^^r] ->',; 




'4~^^J^0<<^^ -• iv ■ _-:»-;/' 




~^f^. 






v JS- : : ' 


: ^-****^ ; " oy = 31 2.7090x^61 8001. 


3378 






' "■■■ 


♦"^ . ;■•-■■_ ■:.-..,. ^,r57!7^7T"^'T-™' : 
















380 


1990 2000 v 2010 2020 
Year 


20 


30 
















i- 

< 


' ic inr>n 


NC211 @Dosher Cutoff 




I 
I 




20000 - 
15000 - 
10000 
5000 ■ 








'"'-^^-r - *^^ - . 


i 




'^ : : : :^r¥^^;: ;?#jfe 


i 








. ~ 








|S;y = 245^5^7^475988.9632 


i 
I 








19£ 


10 


1990 2000 2010 2020 
Year 


20 


30 



■M^BI 



Shallotte Urban Area 
ADT Trendline Analysis 







NC179 








Year 


State line 


W. of NC 904 


Shallotte 




1988 


7200 


4400 


8300 




1994 


12700 


7400 


8800 




1998 


12000 


7200 


12000 




1999 


11000 


10000 


12000 




2025 


21904 


19653 


21353 


growth rate; n = 


26 


2.68% 


2.63% 


2.24% 


growth rate to be used 3% = 


23723 


21566 


25879 





NC 179 @S.C. State Line 


25000 i 








■ ■ ■• 


'"-'-' , ■ "- ^V " ■■--■'■■ ■ ■ ■ ■'■ r : 




20000 

I- 15000 

< 10000 - 

5000 



19 




_^^^^ 








S'm^^f^^^Sit :■■';■ 


-,<;.;#??^,-.' p:: -^u:--: ; :-- 




■ 


:j ( \,^S-;X£& = 369.5652X - 726465.2174 


80 


1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 




Year 



NC179@WestofNC904 



i- 

Q 
< 




1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 

Year 



NC 179@Briarwood 



25000 
20000 
15000 
10000 
5000 




'•" f: - : ' JSfl 


' Si^fe^ 


plwl^S: :'---" 


*%^£S?u 


t-' -"""... ~' ■ 


y = 366.2207x - 720243.8127 



1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 
Year 



Shallotte Urban Area 
APT Trendline Analysis 







NC130 








Year 


County Line 


Near New Mall 


Near Holden 




1988 


2800 


8300 


4400 




1994 


3400 


10000 


7900 




1998 


3300 


14000 


9200 




1999 


3400 


12000 


8700 




2025 


4732 


24419 


20196 


growth rate; n = 


26 


1.28% 


2.77% 


3.29% 


growth rate to be 


used 3% = 


7332 


25879 


18762 



5000 

4000 

H 3000 

Q 

< 2000 

1000 



1980 



NC 130 ©County Line 



OX* V^^~~~~~~ -' ; 


^ "~ 


■■^T^^r-^-gr^ 


■'~ '-'■'•■•■•'•.'; ;' 




• .:".' '■ '■■'-; ;"''':•' .-. '. ";:■■.;.-■.'.'' J'.jliif. .;-,/ : '% . 


'^MW^ 




: ':■ '" ■- -'" ' ; : ':)W'-/^ 


-- 49.8328X - 


96178.9298 



1990 



2000 2010 
Year 



2020 



2030 



30000 

25000 

20000 

Q 15000 
< 

10000 

5000 





1980 



NC 130 @ South of Main Street 







^^ 


«*' ) 










.•v^t^y: 


= 441 


1371x 


- 868883.2776 



1990 



2000 2010 2020 2030 
Year 





25000 I 

20000 

. 15000 

Q 

< 10000 

5000 


19 




NC 130 near Holden Beach 


| 


-.- •-->:•'. •<;.; 


■ " ■ " . '. ■■■ ■ ■' ■ . ■-■ .'-,. ■ ' •" ■ ■ ' ■ 






■ ■';■■ '^t^x^ 0000 "^ 




- ^^z^* ^^ ■ 










W y = 4t870602x"-"826375.5853 




80 


1990 2000 2010 2020 20 
Year 


30 

i 



Shallotte Urban Area 





. 


ADT Trendline 


Analysis 








US 17 








Year 


Bell Swamp 


Grissettown 






1988 


11000 


6600 






1994 


13900 


11500 






1998 


17000 


15000 






1999 


19000 


16000 






2025 


35995 


38003 


n = 




26 






growth 


rate 




2.49% 


3.38% 


growth rate to be used 3% = 


40975 


34505 



US 17 @ Bell Swamp 





tuuuu 




. •..-:- .. ■ ^ •■.■-- V.,,.,.,,>-.. ■:--,. . f<- .'.■ 


- «v -- - . •; y .;. ...• _ '. v - _ ( ; 




35000 
30000 


*'*•'-* ""■■'■. " r - ■ '•' 




_.'- '-,.:.' ^ "^ ■ *' ' _ J , ~^;:'i', ',-■ - "- _^ -• ■ . 
















25000 
20000 
15000 
10000 
5000 - 
n . 








Q 
< 




-..-:- ."^>> 
















■?/ y = 686.6221X - 1354414.3813 



1980 1990 2000 2010 

Year 



2020 



2030 



40000 

35000 

30000 

25000 

Q 20000 

< 15000 

10000 

5000 





1980 



US 17 (5) Grissettown 



: . '\V-"-' "' : ."""**' ""• — .-•-'--'—.-»-;.'. - 


;—- /-"- ^C^-^.:-^^:^ 


^r.::.: ] ::yr^^"^' :[ 




'■■■'■',':.•'' '■'?■- v>- : ;v ; ^■^•r^^v^cfev-, {"I:--.'.', '.•,...;' :■".:".-. 


' ^f*^ 






-■ : .?- ; ■ -"--': " ■- 


^^^■' - ../ " ; - • 


1 ■' " ^ ' - ~ ' - V;' * " .. »'.7.* 


Ry = 850.5017X - 1684263.2107 



1990 



2000 2010 
Year 



2020 



2030 



: _ 



^HMM^B 



i 



Shallotte 1997 Transportation Study 

Vehicle Type in Average 24 Hour Period 

Prepared By: Bryan D. Webb for Kimberiy Hinton 
11/5/1998 






Page 1 






^ 



Shallotte 1997 Transportation Study 

Vehicle Type in Average 24 Hour Period 

Prepared By: Bryan D. Webb for Kimberly Hinton 
11/5/1998 






Class #30-old 
Route: NC 130 



Date: SEPT 1997 




93.5 



4951 



4951 



4.6 



245 



1.5 



163 



1.9 



99 



2.5 



40 



TOTAL VEH= 



5295 



ADJ. TOTAL* 



5f54 



Page 2 



. 



Shallotte 1997 Transportation Study 

Peak Directional Split 

Prepared By: Bryan D. Webb for Kimberly Hinton 
11/4/1998 




Class #: f 1 Location: South of SR 1 146 
R6ttte:J4Ci30 



DIRECTION 



AM PEAK HOUR 



— — ■ — - w i 

: : : :-^S:> ; >: : : ; : 

:v>:*:^x:S>v'/>:'x: :■:■:■■■ :■:■:■:-- ■'•':■:'■■■ 



NORTH SOUTH 




Date: Sep-98 






:x : :-. -:■.*■. 



PM PEAK HOUR 




Bi-Directional 



7:00-8:00 



4:00-5:00 



North 



7:00-8:00 



4:00-5:00 



South 



11:00-12:00 



4:00-5:00 



Ctass #: 12 Locatfoh^South ofNC 330 
Route; SR4i40 



AM SPLIT 



DIRECTION 



AM PE AK HOUR 




Pate: Sep^SS 



gsgvgj 



fcliPEAKHOUR WORTH I SOUTH 



■>»<:-^v:v:-^;>: 




Bi-Directional 



7:00-8:00 



5:00-6:00 



North 



7:00-8:00 



6:00-7:00 



South 



11:00-12:00 



5:00-6:00 




Page 1 



Shallotte 1997 Transportation Study 

Peak Directional Split 

Prepared By: Bryan D. Webb for Kimberly Hinton 
11/4/1998 




Cfassif: 23 Location: South of SR 1207 



Route: NC 179 



DIRECTION 



AM PEAK HOUR 








mmmmihmmmymm 
NORTH I SOUTH 



\ 




,'.V.V. , .V.'.W. , .V.'. , .'. , .'. , . , . , A'.\ 

PW PEAK HOUR 



Date: Sep-98 



m* 
mm 




Bi-Directional 



11:00-12:00 



3:00-4:00 



North 



7:00-8:00 



4:00-5:00 



South 



11:00-12:00 



3:00-4:00 



Class ik 30 Location; West of US 17 
Route: NC 130 



DIRECTION 



AM PEAK HOUR 




Date: Sep-98 



PM PEAK HOUR EAST 




Bi-Directional 



7:00-8:00 



5:00-6:00 



West 



8:00-9:00 



5:00-6:00 



East 



7:00-8:00 



5:00-6:00 




Class #; 40 Location: East of SR 1i73\ 
Route: NB Main Street 



Page 2 



>> 



Shallotte 1997 Transportation Study 

Peak Directional Split 

Prepared By: Bryan D. Webb for Kimberly Hinton 
11/4/1998 




Page 3 



HBBBMB 



Appendix D Level of Service 



LEVEL OF SERVICE 



A good indication of the adequacy of the existing major street system is a comparison of 
the traffic volumes with the ability of the streets to move traffic freely at a desirable 
speed. The ability of a street to move traffic freely, safely, and efficiently with a 
minimum delay is controlled principally by the spacing of major devices utilized. Thus, 
the ability of a street to move traffic can be increased by restricting parking and turning 
movements, using proper sign and signal devices, and by the application of other traffic 
engineering techniques. 

Capacity is defined as the maximum number of vehicles that have a reasonable 
expectation of passing over a given section of a roadway in one direction, or in both 

directions, during a given period under prevailing roadway and traffic conditions. The 
relationship of traffic volumes to the capacity of the roadway will determine the level of 
service being provided. Six levels of service have been selected to identify the conditions 
existing under various speed and volume conditions on a highway or street. 

The six levels of service are illustrated in the figures following this section, and they are 
defined on the following page. The definitions are general and conceptual in nature, but 
may be applied to urban arterial levels of service. Levels of service for interrupted flow 
facilities vary widely in terms of both the user's perception of service quality and the 
operational variables used to describe them. Each chapter of the 1994 Highway Capacity 
Manual contains more detailed descriptions of the levels of service as defined for each 
facility type. 



1 Highway Capacity Manual, Special Report 209, 1994, p. 3:7-1 1. 



1 . Level-of-service A describes primarily free flow operations at average travel 
speeds, usually about 90 percent of the free flow speed for the arterial class. 
Vehicles are completely unimpeded in their ability to maneuver within the traffic 
stream. Stopped delay at signalized intersections is minimal. 

2. Level-of-service B represents reasonable unimpeded operations at average travel 
speeds, usually about 70 percent of the free flow speed for the arterial class. The 
ability to maneuver within the traffic stream is only slightly restricted and stopped 
delays are not bothersome. Drivers are not generally subjected to appreciable 
tension. 

3. Level-of-service C represents stable operations. However, ability to maneuver and 
change lanes in midblock locations may be more restricted than in LOS B, and 
longer queues and/or adverse signal coordination may contribute to lower average 
travel speeds of about 50 percent of the average free flow speed for the arterial 
class. Motorists will experience an appreciable tension while driving. 

4. Level-of-service D borders on a range on which small increases in flow may cause 
substantial increases in approach delay and, hence, decreases in arterial speed. 
They may be due to adverse signal progression, inappropriate signal timing, high 
volumes, or some combination of these. Average travel speeds are about 40 
percent of free flow speed. 

5. Level-of-service E is characterized by significant approach delays and average 
travel speeds of one-third the free flow speed or lower. Such operations are caused 
by some combination of adverse progression, high signal density, extensive 
queuing at critical intersections, and inappropriate signal timing. 

6. Level-of-service F characterizes arterial flow at extremely low speeds below 
one-third to one-quarter of the free flow speed. Intersection congestion is likely at 
critical signalized locations, with high approach delays resulting. Adverse 
progression is frequently a contributor to this condition. 



Source: 1994 Highway Capacity Manual 




LOS A. 



LOS D. 




LOS B. 



LOSE. 











^ ..: ,.*afrJ 






^s£3*SP^ 






i.-BBHl 


i^- i 


F ■« ... B* 


^fvw 


j^HHifct ^i 




^"2^2 


, jBR " aH 


M« 


i^^s i^d 


PP^- 'js 












|B^^ . < .-^H 




' /^■.■JU^Btl- 




■■'" iS 








<r i *^^B^ 1 




■ — ' — •!•.■« 




1^^/^yBl 








< * v Bs 








^a^F J 


y" J 


- 




LOS C. 



LOS F. 



LEVELS OF SERVICE 



Appendix £ Environmental Listings 



. 



Search Results 



http://www.ncs par ks.net/rxhp/quadsttrt .f 



Search Criteria: Shallotte, Listed 
Quads: 10 



Major Group 


Scientific Name 


(Habitat link) Common Name 






State 
Status 


Federal State 
Status Rank 


Global Quad 
Rank Status 


Mammal 


Trichechus manatus 


Manatee 


E LE 


SIN 


G2 


Historic 


■ SHALLOTTE 


Bird Charadrius melodus 


Piping Plover 


T LT 




S2B.S2N 


G3 


Current - 


SHALLOTTE 


Bird Picoides borealis 


Red-cockaded Woodpecker 


E 


LE 


S2 


G3 


Current - 


SHALLOTTE 


Reptile 


Alliqator mississippiensis American Alliqator 


T 


T(S/A) S3 


G5 


Historic - SHALLOTTE 


Reptile 


Caretta caretta 


Loggerhead 


T LT 


S2B.S2N 


G3 


Current - 


SHALLOTTE 


Reptile 


Chelonia mydas 


Green Turtle 


T LT 




S1B,SZN 


G3 


Current - 


SHALLOTTE 


Reptile 


Pituophis melanoleuc 

melanoleucus 


— Northern Pine Snake 
Seabeach Amaranth 


SC 

T 


FSC 
LT 


S3 
S2 


G4T4 
G2 


Obscure 
Current - 


- SHALLOTTE 


Vascular Plant 


Amaranthus pumilus 


SHALLOTTE 


Vascular Plant 


Amorpha qeorqiana var Savanna ■ Indigo _ buBh 
conrusa 3 


T 


FSC 


S2 


G3T2 


Current 


- SHALLOTTE 


Vascular Plant 


Dionaea muscipula 


Venus Flytrap 


C-SC 


FSC 


S3 


G3 


Current 


- SHALLOTTE 



NIC NHP database updated: January 2001. Search performed on Tuesday, February 6, 2001. 

Explanation of Codes 

Do NOT bookmark this search results page, instead bookmark: www.ncsparks.net/nhp/quad.html 






lof 1 



2/6/01 12.29 F 



Search Results 



http://www.ncsparks.net/nhp/quad 



Search Criteria: supply, Listed 
Quads: 20 



Major Group 


Scientific Name (Habitat link) Common Name 






State 
Status 


Federal 
Status 


State 
Rank 


Global Quad 
Rank Status 


Bird 


Aimophila aestivalis 


Bachman ' s Sparrow 


SC 


FSC 


S3B.S2N G3 


Current 


■ SUPPLY 


Bird 


Ammodramus henslowii 


Henslow ' s Sparrow 


SR 


FSC 


S2B,S1N G4 


Current - 


SUPPLY 


Bird 


Picoides borealis 


Red-cockaded Woodpecker 


E 


LE 


S2 


G3 


Current - 


SUPPLY 


Reptile 




Alliqator mississippiensis American Alliqator 




r t(s/a) s: 


G5 


Current 


- SUPPLY 


Reptile 




Ophisaurus mimicus 


Mimic Glass Lizard 


SC 


FSC 


S2 


G3 


Current - 


SUPPLY 


Reptile 


l 


Pituoohis melanoleucus 

meianoleucus 


Northern Pine Snake 
Carolina Gopher Frog 


SC 
SC 


FSC 
FSC 


S3 
S2 


G4T4 
G3G4T3 


Current 
Current - 


- SUPPLY 


Amphibiaj 


Rana capito capito 


SUPPLY 


Fish 




Elassoma boehlkei 


Carolina Pygmy Sunfish 


T 


FSC 


SI 


G2 


Current - 


SUPPLY 


Mollusk 




Triodoosis soelneri 


Cape Fear Threetooth 


T 


FSC 


S2 


G2 


Current 


■ SUPPLY 


Vascular 


Plant 


Amorpha qeorqiana var 
confusa 


Savanna Indigo-bush 


T 


FSC 


S2 


G3T2 


Current 


- SUPPLY 


Vascular 


Plant 


Balduina atropurpurea 


Honeycomb Head 


C 


FSC 


SH 


G2G3 


Historic 


- SUPPLY 


Vascular 


Plant 


Dionaea muscipula 


Venus Flytrap 


C-SC 


FSC 


S3 


G3 


Current 


- SUPPLY 


Vascular 


Plant 


Litsea aestivalis 


Pondspice 


C 


FSC 


S2 


G3 


Current ■ 


■ SUPPLY 


Vascular 


Plant 


Lophiola aurea 


Golden Crest 


E 


- 


SI 


G4 Historic - 


SUPPLY 


Vascular 


Plant 


Lvsimachia asperulifo 


Lia Rouqh-leaf Loosestrife 


E LE S3 


G3 


Current 


- SUPPLY 


Vascular 


Plant 


Parnassia carolimana 


Carolina Grass-of -parnassus 


E 


FSC 


S2 G3 


Current - SUPPLY 


Vascular 


Plant 


Platanthera inteqra 


Yellow Pringeless Orchid T 




SI 


G3G4 


Current 


- SUPPLY 


Vascular 


Plant 


Platanthera nivea 


Snowy Orchid 


T 


- 


SI 


G5 


Current - 


SUPPLY 


Vascular 


Plant 


Solidaqo pulchra 


Carolina Goldenrod 


E 


FSC 


S3 


G3 


Current - 


SUPPLY 


Vascular 


Plant 


Tofieldia qlabra 


Carolina Asphodel 


C 


FSC 


S3 


G3 


Current - 


SUPPLY 



NC NHP database updated: January 2001. Search performed on Tuesday, February 6, 2001. 

Explanation of Codes 

Do NOT bookmark this search results page, instead bookmark: www.ncsparks.net/nhp/quad.html 



lof 1 



2/6/01 IS 



■■ 



Search Results 



http://www.ncsparks.net/nhp/quadstat.fi 



Search Criteria: exum, Listed 
Quads: 11 

Major Group . Scientific Name (Habitat link) Common Name 



State Federal 
Status Status 



State 
Rank 



Global 
Rank 



Quad 
Status 



Mammal 


Corynorhinus rafinesquii 


Rafinesque's Big-eared 


Bat SC 


FSC 


S3 


G3G4 


Current - EXUM 


Bird 


Picoides borealis Red-cockaded Woodpecker 


E 


LE 


S2 


G3 


Historic - EXUM 


Reptile 


Alliqator mississippiensis American Alligator 


T 


T(S/A) S3 G5 


Current - EXUM 


Reptile 


Pituophis melanoleucus 

melanoleucus 


Northern Pine Snake 


SC 


FSC 


S3 


G4T4 


Current - EXUM 


Fish 


Elassoma boehlkei Carolina Pyqmy Sunfish 


T FSC 


SI 


G2 


Historic - EXUM 


Vascular 


Plant Dionaea muscipula 


Venus Flytrap 


C-SC 


FSC 


S3 


G3 


Current - EXUM 


Vascular 


Plant Macbridea caroliniana 


Carolina Bogmint 


T 


FSC 


S2 


G2G3 


Historic - EXUM 


Vascular 


Plant Parnassia caroliniana 


Carolina Grass-of -parnassus 


E 


FSC 


S2 G3 Current - EXUM 


Vascular 


rl Sporobolus teretifolius 
sen6u stricto 


Wireleaf Dropseed 


T 


FSC 


SI 


G2? 


Current - EXUM 


Vascular 


Plant Thalictrum cooleyi 


Cooley's Meadowrue 


E 


LE 


SI 


Gl 


Historic - EXUM 


Vascular 


Plant Tofieldia qlabra 


Carolina Asphodel 


C 


FSC 


S3 


G3 


Historic - EXUM 



NC NHP database updated: January 2001. Search performed on Tuesday, February 6, 2001. 

Explanation of Codes 

Do NOT bookmark this search results page, instead bookmark: www.ncsparks.net/nhp/quad.html 



lof 1 



2/6/01 12:45 P, 



Search Results 



http://wwww.ncsparks.neT/ nop/ que 






Search Criteria: Holden Beach, Listed 
Quads: 6 



Major Group 



Scientific Name (Habitat link) Common Name 



State Federal 
Status Status 



State 
Rank 



Global 
Rank 



Quad 
Status 



Bird 

Reptile 

Reptile 

Reptile 

Amphibian 



Charadrius melodus Piping Plover 
Alligator mississippiensis American Alligator 
Caretta caretta Loggerhead 
Chelonia mydas Green Turtle 
Rana capito capito Carolina Gopher Frog 



T 
SC 



LT S2B,S2N G3 Current - HOLDEN BEACH 
T T(S/A) S3 G5 Historic - HOLDEN BEACH 

LT S2B,S2N G3 Current - HOLDEN BEACH 

LT S1B.SZN G3 Historic - HOLDEN BEACH 

FSC S2 G3G4T3 Historic - HOLDEN BEACH 



Vascular Plant Amaranthus pumilus 



Seabeach Amaranth 



LT 



S2 



G2 



Current 



HOLDEN BEACH 



NC NHP database updated: January 2001. Search performed on Tuesday, February 6, 2001. 

Explanation of Codes 

Do NOT bookmark this search results page, instead bookmark: www.ncsparks.net/nhp/quad.html 



lof 1 



2/6/C 






Appendix F Urban Thoroughfare Planning Principles 






., 



Urban Thoroughfare Planning Principles 



Purpose of Planning 

There are many benefits to be gained from thoroughfare planning, but the main objective 
is to assure that the road system will be progressively developed to serve future travel 
desires adequately. Thus, the main consideration in thoroughfare planning is to make 
provisions for street and highway improvements so that, when the need arises, feasible 
opportunities to make improvements exist. 

Streets, roads, and highways have two primary functions: they provide traffic service and 
land service. When combined, these two services are basically incompatible. This 
conflict will not be serious if both traffic and land service demands are low. However, 
when traffic volumes are high, access conflicts created by uncontrolled and intensely 
used abutting property result in intolerable traffic flow friction and congestion. 

There are two major benefits derived from thoroughfare planning. First, each road or 
highway can be designed to perform a specific function and provide a specific level of 
service. This permits savings in right-of-way, construction, and maintenance costs. It 
also protects residential neighborhoods and encourages stability in travel and land use 
patterns. Second, local officials are informed of future improvements and can 
incorporate them into planning and policy decisions. This will permit developers to 
design subdivisions in a manner that is non-conflicting. It also will direct school and 
park officials better to locate their facilities and minimize the damage to property values 
and community appearance that is sometimes associated with road improvements. 

Urban Thoroughfare Classification System 

In the urban thoroughfare plan, elements are classified as major thoroughfares, minor 
thoroughfares, or local access streets. The major thoroughfares are the primary traffic 
arteries of the urban area providing for traffic movements within, around, and through the 
area. Minor thoroughfares are designed to collect traffic from the local access streets and 
carry it to the major thoroughfare system. Local access streets, which may be further 
classified as residential, commercial, or industrial streets, are designed only to provide 
access to abutting property. Due to the limited amount of detail that can be shown on a 
county thoroughfare plan, only urban major thoroughfares are shown. 

Urban Major Thoroughfares 

The major thoroughfares are the principle traffic carriers of the urban area. Their 
function is to move intra-urban and inter-urban traffic. The streets, which comprise the 
major thoroughfare system, may also serve as access to abutting property; however, their 
primary function is to carry traffic. Too much access decreases the travel speed along the 
thoroughfare and causes "bottlenecks" which necessitates the need for traffic signals and 
hence reducing capacity. The end result is reduction in capacity of the facility. 



Urban Minor Thoroughfares 

The minor thoroughfare system serves the function of collecting local traffic from 
residential, commercial or industrial type areas and distributing it to the major 
thoroughfare system. They also may supplement the major thoroughfare system by 
carrying minor through traffic movements. Due to the land access type function, minor 
thoroughfares cannot accommodate large volumes of traffic. They are more of a 
collector-distributor system for the major thoroughfares. 

Urban Radial-Loop System 

The radial- loop system is a coordinated system of major thoroughfares that is most 
adaptable to the desired lines of travel within an urban area. It also is reflected in most 
urban area thoroughfare plans. The radial- loop system includes radials, crosstowns, 
loops, and bypasses. Radial thoroughfares provide for travel from points outside to major 
destinations inside the urban area. Crosstown thoroughfares provide for traffic 
movements across the central area and around the central business district (CBD). Loop 
thoroughfares provide for lateral travel movements between suburban areas. Bypasses 
are designed to carry non-local traffic around and through the area. Occasionally, a 
bypass with low through traffic volumes can be designed to function as a portion of the 
urban loop. The radial-loop system and urban thoroughfare classification street system 
are illustrated in the Idealized Thoroughfare Plan Figure at the end of this section. 

County Thoroughfare Planning Concept 

The underlying concept of the thoroughfare plan is to provide a functional system of 
streets, roads, and highways that permit direct, efficient, and safe travel. Different 
elements in the system are designed to have specific functions and levels of service, thus 
minimizing the traffic and land service conflict. 

In the county plan, elements are designated as either urban or rural. In the urban planning 
jurisdiction, the local municipality or small urban area generally has planning 
jurisdiction. Outside the urban planning area, the county has planning jurisdiction. The 
planning jurisdiction is not necessarily the town or city limits nor is it necessarily the 
extra territorial jurisdiction. The urban planning jurisdiction is the boundary set 
collectively by the engineer and the small urban area, or simply put, town or city. In 
those urban areas where no urban thoroughfare plan has been developed, elements are 
generally designated as rural and under the planning jurisdiction of the county. When a 
thoroughfare is developed for an urban area that has not previously had a plan, then the 
area defined by that plan is considered to be urban and comes under the planning 
jurisdiction of the municipality. 

Rural Planning Organization (RPO) 

The North Carolina General Assembly during its 1997-98 session mandated that the 
North Carolina Board of Transportation develop a plan to establish Rural Planning 
Organizations (RPOs) as a counterpart to the existing Metropolitan Planning 
Organizations (MPOs). As stated in the Study Report to the NC Board of Transportation 
dated June 1999, "RPOs should be formed to provide a cooperative unified voice for 
rural entities to advocate for their funding and project needs, and to be meaningfully 



involved in integrated multi-modal transportation planning and the project programming 
processes/ Multi-modal is meant to cover the fullest possible spectrum of transportation 
modes. Integrated means that the consideration of each mode should take into account all 
other modes as fully as possible during planning and operations." Proposed planning 
functions that may be performed by the RPO are listed below. 

Development, Maintenance, and Comparisons of Data 

A number of conditions generally need to be continuously surveyed and compiled 
annually (or on a regular basis) to determine whether previous projections are still valid 
or whether plan assumption need to be changes. 

Maintenance of Inventory 

A base map and inventories of the physical transportation system (e. g. signalized 
intersections, parking (centralized areas), transit/rail inventory, bicycle and pedestrian 
facilities) can be kept current by recording changes as the occur. 
Long Range Transportation Plan 

Evaluation of the overall transportation plan will be undertaken at such time that the 
surveillance hems indicate that travel of land development trends have begun to deviate 
significantly from forecasts or at such time that new data are required for facility design. 
It is anticipated that some reappraisal work will be required approximately every five 
years. The reappraisal work performed at these intervals will determine at what level 
reevaluation must be executed. If all is well with the estimates and projections, little work 
other than minor updates will be necessary. However, if significant differences are 
detected between projections and actual conditions, a major update will be required. 
Various modal elements of the transportation plan should be coordinated to maintain an 
integrated multi-modal transportation system. 

Short Range Transportation Plan 

An important element of the transportation planning process is a short range plan. It 
provides for short-term transportation needs of persons and goods, and identifies actions 
that present a systematic approach to addressing transportation problem areas. The short 
range plan needs to be consistent with the long range plan. 

In accordance with this mandate, Cape Fear Regional Council of Governments has 
agreed to act as the RPO for this area, which includes the Shallotte Urban Area. 



J 



IDEALIZED THOROUGHFARE PLAN 




LEGEND 



EXISTING 



PROPOSED 



MAJOR THOROUGHFARE 
FREEWAY 

MAJOR OTHER 

MINOR THOROUGHFARE 

LOCAL ROAD 

INTERCHANGE 

GRADE SEPERATION 




o 




LAND USES 

COMMERCIAL/BUSINESS 

RESIDENTIAL 

INDUSTRIAL 

PUBLIC/INSTITUTIONAI 



Appendix G Subdivision Ordinances & Design Standards 



RECOMMENDED SUBDIVISION ORDINANCES 
AND DESIGN STANDARDS 

English equivalents are printed in this section as a guide. The English measurements are 
not meant to represent exact conversions, and should not be used for standards, 
regulations or construction. The tables in this section are taken from the Roadway 
Design Metric Design Manual which should serve as the standard. 

RECOMMENDED SUBDIVISION ORDINANCES - Definitions 

Rural Roads 
Principal Arterial - A rural link in a highway system serving travel, and having 
characteristics indicative of substantial statewide or interstate travel and existing solely to 
serve traffic. This network would consist of Interstate routes and other routes designated 
as principal arterials. 

Minor Arterial - A rural roadway joining cities and larger towns and providing intra- 
state and inter-county service at relatively high overall travel speeds with minimum 
interference to through movement. 

Major Collector - A road which serves major intra-county travel corridors and traffic 
generators and provides access to the Arterial system. 

Minor Collector - A road which provides service to small local communities and traffic 
generators and provides access to the Major Collector system. 

Local Road - A road which serves primarily to provide access to adjacent land, over 
relatively short distances. 

Urban Streets 
Major Thoroughfares - Major thoroughfares consist of Inter-state, other freeway, 
expressway, or parkway roads, and major streets that provide for the expeditious 
movement of high volumes of traffic within and through urban areas. 

Minor Thoroughfares - Minor thoroughfares perform the function of collecting traffic 
from local access streets and carrying it to the major thoroughfare system. Minor 
thoroughfares may be used to supplement the major thoroughfare system by facilitating 
minor through traffic movements and may also serve abutting property. 

Local Street - A local street is any street not on a higher order urban system and serves 
primarily to provide direct access to abutting land. 

Specific Type Rural or Urban Streets 
Freeway, expressway, or parkway - Divided multilane roadways designed to carry 
large volumes of traffic at this speeds. & freeway provides for continuous flow of 
vehicles with no direct access to abutting property and with access to selected crossroads 



only by way of interchanges. An expressway is a facility with full or partial control of 
access and generally with grade separations at major intersections. A parkway is for non- 
commercial traffic, with full or partial control of access. 

Residential Collector Street - A local street which serves as a connector street between 
local residential streets and the thoroughfare system. Residential collector streets 
typically collect traffic from 100 to 400 dwelling units. 

Local Residential Street - Cul-de-sacs, loop streets less than 760 meters (2500 ft.) in 
length, or streets less than 1.6 kilometers (1 mile) in length that do not connect 
thoroughfares, or serve major traffic generators, and do not collect traffic from more than 
100 dwelling units. 

Cul-de-sac - A short street having only one end open to traffic and the other end being 
permanently terminated and a vehicular turn around provided. 

Frontage Road - A road that is parallel to a partial or full access controlled facility and 
provides access to adjacent land. 

Alley - A strip of land, owned publicly or privately, set aside primarily for vehicular 
service access to the back side of properties otherwise abutting on a street. 



Property 
Building Setback Line - A line parallel to the street in front of which no structure shall 
be erected. 

Easement - A grant by the property owner for use by the public, a corporation, or 
person(s), of a strip of land for a specific purpose. 

Lot - A portion of a subdivision, or any other parcel of land, which is intended as a unit 
for transfer of ownership or for development or both. (Also includes "plat" and 
"parcel"). 



Subdivision 
Subdivider - Any person, firm, corporation or official agent thereof who subdivides or 
develops any land deemed to be a subdivision. 

Subdivision - All divisions of a tract or parcel of land into two or more lots, building 
sites, or other divisions for the purpose, immediate or future, of sale or building 
development and all divisions of land involving the dedication of a new street or change 
in existing streets. The following shall not be included within this definition nor subject 
to these regulations: 



The combination or re-combination of portions of previously platted lots where the total 
number of lots is not increased and the resultant lots are equal to or exceed the standards 
contained herein the division of land into parcels greater than four hectares where no 
street right-of-way dedication is involved the public acquisition, by purchase, of strips of 
land for the widening or the opening of streets the division of a tract in single ownership 
whose entire area is no greater than 0.8 hectares into not more than three lots, where no 
street right-of-way dedication is involved and where the resultant lots are equal to or 
exceed the standards contained herein. 

Dedication - A gift, by the owner, of his property to another party without any 
compensation being given for the transfer. The dedication is made by written instrument 
and completed with an acceptance. 

Reservation - Reservation of land does not involve any transfer of property rights. It 
constitutes an obligation to keep property free from development for a stated period of 
time. 

DESIGN STANDARDS 

Streets and Roads 

The design of all roads within the Planning Area shall be in accordance with the accepted 
policies of the North Carolina Department of Transportation, Division of Highways, as 
taken or modified from the American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHTO) 
manuals. 

The provision of street rights-of-way shall conform and meet the recommendations of the 
Thoroughfare Plan, as adopted. The proposed street layout shall be coordinated with the 
existing street system of the surrounding area. Normally the proposed streets should be 
the extension of existing streets if possible. 



Right-of-way Widths 

Right-of-way (ROW) widths shall not be less than the following and shall apply except in 
those cases where ROW requirements have been specifically set out in the Thoroughfare 
Plan. 



Table 1 Minimum Right-of- 


way Requirements 




Area Classification 


Functional Classification 


Minimum ROW 


RURAL 


Principle Arterial 


Freeways -105 meters 
(350 ft.) Other - 60 meters 
(200 ft.) 




Minor Arterial 
Major Collector 
Minor Collector 
Local Road 


30 meters (100 ft.) 
30 meters (100 ft.) 
24 meters (80ft.) 
18 meters 1 (60 ft.) 


URBAN 


Major Thoroughfare 
Minor Thoroughfare 
Local Street 
Cul-de-sac 


27 meters (90 ft.) 
21 meters (70 ft.) 
18 meters 1 (60 ft.) 
variable 



The desirable minimum right-of-way (ROW) is 18 meters (60 ft.). If curb and gutter is 
provided, 15 meters (50 ft.) of ROW is adequate on local residential streets. 

2 The ROW dimension will depend on radius used for vehicular turn around. Distance 
from edge of pavement of turn around to ROW should not be less than distance from 
edge of pavement to ROW on street approaching turn around. 

The subdivider will only be required to dedicate a maximum of 30 meters (100 ft.) of 
ROW. In cases where over 30 meters (100 ft.) of ROW is desired, the subdivider will be 
required only to reserve the amount in excess of 30 meters (100 ft.). On all cases in 
which ROW is sought for a fully controlled access facility, the subdivider will only be 
required to make a reservation. It is strongly recommended that subdivisions provide 
access to properties from internal streets, and that direct property access to major 
thoroughfares, principle and minor arterials, and major collectors be avoided. Direct 
property access to minor thoroughfares is also undesirable. 

A partial width ROW, not less than 18 meters (60 ft) in width, may be dedicated when 
adjoining undeveloped property that is owned or controlled by the subdivider; provided 
that the width of a partial dedication be such as to permit the installation of such facilities 
as may be necessary to serve abutting lots. When the said adjoining property is 
subdivided, the remainder of the full required ROW shall be dedicated. 



Street Widths 

Widths for street and road classifications other than local shall be as recommended by the 
Thoroughfare Plan. Width of local roads and streets shall be as follows: 

Local Residential - 

Curb and Gutter section - 7.8 meters (26 ft.), face to face of curb 

Shoulder section - 6 meters (20 ft.) to edge of pavement, 1.2 meters (4 ft.) for shoulders 



Residential Collector - 

Curb and Gutter section - 10.2 meters (34 ft.), face to face of curb 

Shoulder section - 6 meters (20 ft.) to edge of pavement, 1.8 meters (6 ft.) for shoulders 

Geometric Characteristics 

The standards outlined below shall apply to all subdivision streets proposed for addition 
to the State Highway System or Municipal Street System. In cases where a subdivision is 
sought adjacent to a proposed thoroughfare corridor, the requirements of dedication and 
reservation discussed under Right-of-Way shall apply. 

Design Speed - The design speed for a roadway should be a minimum of 10 km/h (5 
mph) greater than the posted speed limit. The design speeds for subdivision type streets 
shall be: 



Table 2 Design Speeds (metric) 






Facility Type 


Desirable (km/h) 


Minimum(km/h) 








Level 


Rolling 


Rural 








Arterial 


110 


100 


80 


Minor Collector Roads 


100 


80 


60 


(ADT > 2000) 








Local Roads 


80 


80 


60 


(ADT >400) 








Urban 








Major Thoroughfares 


100 


60 


60 


other than Freeway 








Minor Thoroughfares 


100 


50 


50 


Local Street 


50 


50 


30 



(Reference NCDOT Roadway Design Manual page 1-1B) 



Design Speeds (English) 



Facility Type 


Desirable (mph) 


Minimum(mph) 








Level 


Rolling 


Rural 








Arterial 


70 


60 


50 


Minor Collector Roads 


60 


50 


40 


(ADT > 2000) 








Local Roads* 


50 


50 


40 


Urban 








Major Thoroughfares 


60 


50 


40 


other than Freeway 








Minor Thoroughfares 


40 


30 


30 


Local Street** 


30 


30 


20 



* Based on ADT of 400-750. Where roads serve a limited area and small number of 
dwelling units, minimum speed may be reduced. 
** Based on projected ADT of 50 - 250 

Maximum and Minimum Grades 

The maximum grades in percent are shown below and the minimum grade should not be 
less than 0.5%. Grades for 30 meters (100 ft.) each way from intersections (measured 
from edge of pavement) should not exceed 5%. 



Table 3 Maximum Vertical Grade (metric) 






Facility Type and 
Design Speed (km/h) 


Maximum Grade in 


Percent 






Flat 


Rolling 


Mountainous 


Rural 








Minor Collector 1 








30 


7 


10 


12 


50 


7 


9 


10 


65 


7 


8 


10 


80 


6 


7 


9 


100 


5 


6 


8 


110 


4 


5 


6 


Local Roads 1 








30 


- 


11 


16 


50 


7 


10 


14 


65 


7 


9 


12 


80 


6 


8 


10 


100 


5 


6 


- 


Urban 








Major Thoroughfares 








50 


8 


9 


11 


65 


7 


8 


10 


80 


6 


7 


9 


100 


5 


6 


8 


Minor Thoroughfares 1 








30 


9 


12 


14 


50 


9 


11 


12 


65 


9 


10 


12 


80 


7 


8 


10 


100 


6 


7 


9 


110 


5 


6 


7 


Local Streets 1 








30 


- 


11 


16 


50 


7 


10 


14 


65 


7 


9 


12 


80 


6 


8 


10 


100 


5 


6 


- 


1 For streets and roads wit 


i projected annual avt 


srage daily traffic less 


than 250 or short 



steep grades less than 150 meters (500 ft.) long, grades may be 2% steeper than the 
values in the table. 



(Reference NCDOT Roadway Design Manual page 1-12 T-3) 



Maximum Vertical Grac 


e (English) 






Facility Type and 
Design Speed (mph) 


Maximum Grade 
Flat 


in Percent 
Rolling 


Mountainous 


Rural 








Minor Collector 1 








20 


7 


10 


12 


30 


7 


9 


10 


40 


7 


8 


10 


50 


6 


7 


9 


60 


5 


6 


8 


70 


4 


5 


6 


Local Roads 1 








20 


- 


11 


16 


30 


7 


10 


14 


40 


7 


9 


12 


50 


6 


8 


10 


60 


5 


6 


- 


Urban 








Major Thoroughfares 
other than Freeway 
30 


8 


9 


11 


40 


7 


8 


10 


50 


6 


7 


9 


60 


5 


6 


8 


Minor Thoroughfares 1 
20 


9 


12 


14 


30 


9 


11 


12 


40 


9 


10 


12 


50 


7 


8 


10 


60 


6 


7 


9 


70 


5 


6 


7 


Local Streets 1 








20 


- 


11 


16 


30 


7 


10 


14 


40 


7 


9 


12 


50 


6 


8 


10 


60 


5 


6 


- 



1 For streets and roads with projected annual average daily traffic less than 250 or short 
steep grades less than 150 meters (500 ft.) long, grades may be 2% steeper than the 
values in the table. 



Minimum Sight Distance - In the interest of public safety, no less than the minimum 
sight distance applicable shall be provided. Vertical curves that connect each change in 
grade shall be provided and calculated using the parameters set forth as follows: 



Table 4 Sight Distance 






Design Speed 


Stopping Sight Distance 


Minimum K 


Value 


(km/h) 


meters (feet) 








Minimum Desirable 


Crest Curve 


Sag Curve 


30 


30(100') 30(100') 


3 


4 


50 


60 (200') 70 (230') 


9 


11 


60 


80 (260') 90 (300') 


14 


15 


90 


140(460') 170(560') 


43 


30 


100 


160(530') 210(690') 


62 


37 


(Reference NCD( 


3T Roadway Design Manual page 1- 


12T-1) 





NOTE: General practice calls for vertical curves to be multiples of 10 meters. Calculated 
lengths shall be rounded up in each case. 

! K is a coefficient by which the algebraic difference in grade may be multiplied to 
determine the length in meters of the vertical curve which will provide the desired sight 
distance. Sight distance provided for stopped vehicles at intersections should be in 
accordance with "AASHTO, 1990". 



Superelevation - The superelevation table below shows the minimum radius and the 
related maximum superelevation for design speeds. The maximum rate of roadway 
superelevation (e) for rural roads with no curb and gutter is 0.08. The maximum rate of 
superelevation for urban streets with curb and gutter is 0.06, with 0.04 being desirable. 



Table 5 Superelevation 




Design Speed 


Minimum Radius at Maximum e 1 




(km/h) 








e=0.04 e=0.06 


<?=0.0S 


50 


100 90 


80 


65 


175 160 


145 


80 


280 250 


230 


100 

r - -.._. 


490 435 


395 



(Reference NCDOT Roadway Design Manual page 1-12 T-6 thru T-8) 

Intersections 

1 . Streets shall be laid out so as to intersect as nearly as possible at right angles, 
and no street should intersect any other street at an angle less than sixth-five 
(65) degrees. 

2. Property lines at intersections should be set so that the distance from the edge 
of pavement, of the street turnout, to the property line will be at least as great 
as the distance from the edge of pavement to the property line along the 
intersecting streets. This property line can be established as a radius or as a 
sight triangle. Greater offsets from the edge of pavement to the property lines 
will be required, if necessary, to provide sight distance for the stopped vehicle 
on the side street. 



3. Off-set intersections are to be avoided. Intersections which cannot be aligned 
should be separated by a minimum length of 60 meters (200 ft.) between 
survey centerlines. 

Cul-de-sacs 

Cul-de-sacs shall not be more than one hundred and fifty (150) meters (500 ft.) in length. 
The distance from the edge of pavement on the vehicular turn around to the right-of-way 
line should not be less than the distance from the edge of pavement to right-of-way line 
on the street approaching the turn around. Cul-de-sacs should not be used to avoid 
connection with an existing street or to avoid the extension of an important street. 



Alleys 



Alleys shall be required to serve lots used for commercial and industrial 
purposes except that this requirement may be waived where other definite and 
assured provisions are made for service access. Alleys shall not be provided 
in residential subdivisions unless necessitated by unusual circumstances. 

2. The width of an alley shall be at least 6 meters (20 ft.). 

3. Dead-end alleys shall be avoided where possible, but if unavoidable, shall be 
provided with adequate turn around facilities at the dead-end as may be 
required by the Planning Board. 



Permits for Connection to State Roads 

An approved permit is required for connection to any existing state system road. This 
permit is required prior to any construction on the street or road. The application is 
available at the office of the District Engineer of the Division of Highways. 

Offsets to Utility Poles 

Poles for overhead utilities should be located clear of roadway shoulders, preferably a 
minimum of at least 9 meters (30 ft.) from the edge of pavement. On streets with curb 
and gutter, utility poles shall be set back a minimum distance of 1.8 meters (6 ft.)from the 
face of curb. 

Wheel Chair Ramps 

All street curbs being constructed or reconstructed for maintenance purposes, traffic 
operations, repairs, correction of utilities, or altered for any reason, shall provide 
wheelchair ramps for the physically handicapped at intersections where both curb and 
gutter and sidewalks are provided and at other major points of pedestrian flow. 

Horizontal Width on Bridge Deck 

1 . The clear roadway widths for new and reconstructed bridges serving 2 lane, 2 
way traffic should be as follows: 

Shoulder section approach 

under 800 ADT design year - minimum 8.4 meters (28 ft.)width face 
to face of parapets, rails, or pavement width plus 3 meters (10 ft.), 
whichever is greater 

800 - 2000 ADT design year - minimum 10.2 meters (34 ft.) width 
face to face of parapets, rails, or pavement width plus 3.6 meters (12 
ft.), whichever is greater 

over 2000 ADT design year - minimum width of 12 meters (40 ft.), 
desirable width of 13.2 meters (44 ft.) width face to face of parapets or 
rails 

Curb and gutter approach 

under 800 ADT design year - rninimum 7.2 meters (24 ft.) face to face 
of curbs 

over 800 ADT design year - width of approach pavement measured 
face to face of curbs 

where curb and gutter sections are used on roadway approaches, curbs 
on bridges shall match the curbs on approaches in height, in width of 
face to face of curbs, and in crown drop. The distance from face of 
curb to face of parapet or rail shall be a rninimum of 450 millimeters 
(1.5 ft.), or greater if sidewalks are required 



2. The clear roadway widths for new and reconstructed bridges having 4 or more 
lanes serving undivided two-way traffic should be as follows: 

Shoulder section approach 

width of approach pavement plus width of usable shoulders on the 
approach left and right (shoulder width 2.4 meters (8 ft.) minimum, 3 
meters (10 ft.) desirable) 

Curb and gutter approach 

width of approach pavement measured face to face of curbs 



«^ 



Endnotes 



1 J.G. Martinez, Urban Traffic Technician, April 28, 2000 Municipal & School 
Transportation Assistance (MSTA) Traffic Operations Review to Chad Howell, Shallotte 
Town Administrator 

u Gary Faulkner, Design Review Engineer, July 10, 2000 letter to H.A. Pope, Division 3 
Engineer. 

m Brunswick County Transportation Plan, 2001, Kimberly Hinton, NCDOT- Statewide 
Planning Branch. 

iv Shallotte Thoroughfare Plan, 1996, Rick Blackwood, NCDOT-Statewide Planning 
Branch 

v Plant Protection and Conservation Act, 1979, State of North Carolina. Endangered 
Species Act of 1973, as mended through the 100 th Congress, Federal Register, Volume 
56, Number 225, November 21, 1991 (50CFR Part 17). 

" NC Natural Heritage Program, NC Division of Parks and Recreation, Division of 
Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, February 1997. 

m "High Quality Water and Outstanding Resource Water Management Zones", Division 
of Water Quality, http://cgia.cgia.state.nc.us/cgdb/hqorwdwq.html, October 13, 2001. 
™ North Carolina Soil & Water Conservation, 
www.ehnr.stae.nc.us/DSWC/files/ntwetinv.htm 

^Incorporating Bicycle and Pedestrian Elements into Transportation Plans, NCDOT- 
Statewide Planning Branch, September 1998. 
x NC Department of Transportation, Rural Planning Organizations, 
ht tp://w\v\\ . dot. state.nc.us/planning/r}")o/detault. html Study Report June 1999. 



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